Honeybee Venom Induced 100% Cancer Cell Death in Lab studies

A specific concentration of honeybee venom can induce 100% cancer cell death, while having minimal effects on normal cells.

“We found that melittin can completely destroy cancer cell membranes within 60 minutes.”

#melittin #honeybeevenom #cancer

Ciara Duffy, Anabel Sorolla, Edina Wang, Emily Golden, Eleanor Woodward, Kathleen Davern, Diwei Ho, Elizabeth Johnstone, Kevin Pfleger, Andrew Redfern, K. Swaminathan Iyer, Boris Baer, Pilar Blancafort. Honeybee venom and melittin suppress growth factor receptor activation in HER2-enriched and triple-negative breast cancer. npj Precision Oncology, 2020; 4 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41698-020-00129-0

Prebiotics may help activate anti-tumor immunity

Prebiotics may help activate anti-tumor immunity

Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute have shown that two prebiotics, mucin and inulin, slowed the growth of melanoma in mice by boosting the immune system’s ability to fight cancer. In contrast to probiotics, which are live bacterial strains, prebiotics are “food” for bacteria and stimulate the growth of diverse beneficial populations. The study, published today in Cell Reports, provides further evidence that gut microbes have a role in shaping the immune response to cancer, and supports efforts to target the gut microbiome to enhance the efficacy of cancer therapy.

#inulin #prebiotics #cancer

Prebiotic-Induced Anti-tumor Immunity Attenuates Tumor Growth

Yan Li, Lisa Elme´ n, Igor Segota, Tao Long, Scott N. Peterson, Ze’ev A. Ronai

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.01.035

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211124720300504#app2

Copper nanoparticles and immunotherapy rapidly eliminate cancer cells – Pilot Study

Copper nanoparticles and immunotherapy rapidly eliminate cancer cells – Pilot Study

The combination of the nanoparticles and immunotherapy made the tumours disappear entirely and, as a result, works as a vaccine for lung and colon cancer – the two types that were investigated in the study. To confirm their finding, the researchers injected tumour cells back into the mice. These cells were immediately eliminated by the immune system, which was on the lookout for any new, similar, cells invading the body.

#copper #cancer #immunotherapy

Hendrik Naatz, Bella B. Manshian, Carla Rios Luci, Vasiliki Tsikourkitoudi, Yiannis Deligiannakis, Johannes Birkenstock, Suman Pokhrel, Lutz Mädler, Stefaan J. Soenen. Model-Based Nanoengineered Pharmacokinetics of Iron-Doped Copper Oxide for Nanomedical Applications. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2020; DOI: 10.1002/anie.201912312

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/anie.201912312

Why Canadians were told to stop taking aspirin to prevent first heart attack, stroke

Why Canadians were told to stop taking aspirin to prevent first heart attack, stroke

Why Canadians were told to stop taking aspirin to prevent first heart attack, stroke

If you’ve never had a heart attack or stroke, you likely should not be taking aspirin to prevent them, according to new research. Researchers reviewed three large, randomized, placebo-controlled studies published in 2018 that showed the risk of major internal bleeding associated with taking an aspirin a day is higher than any preventative benefits.

#aspirin #heart #stroke

Acetylsalicylic acid for primary prevention of cardiovascular events Paul Fritsch, Michael R. Kolber Canadian Family Physician Jul 2019, 65 (7) 480;

https://www.cfp.ca/content/65/7/480

Creatine powers the immune system to fight cancer

Creatine powers the immune system to fight cancer

Creatine powers the immune system to fight cancer

The energy-buffering function of creatine certainly goes beyond regulating CD8 T cells. In CrT-KO mice, we have observed the hyporesponsiveness of multiple immune cells in various mouse tumor models. It is also likely that creatine regulates immune reactions to multiple diseases beyond cancer, such as infections and autoimmune diseases (Riesberg et al., 2016). Studying the roles of creatine in modulating various immune cells under different health and disease conditions will be interesting topics for future research.

Stefano Di Biase, Xiaoya Ma, Xi Wang, Jiaji Yu, Yu-Chen Wang, Drake J. Smith, Yang Zhou, Zhe Li, Yu Jeong Kim, Nicole Clarke, Angela To, Lili Yang. Creatine uptake regulates CD8 T cell antitumor immunity. The Journal of Experimental Medicine, 2019; jem.20182044 DOI: 10.1084/jem.20182044

#creatine #tumors #cancer

http://jem.rupress.org/content/early/2019/10/17/jem.20182044/tab-metrics

100% Cure Rate Pancreatic Cancer Experimental Study Animal Model

100% Cure Rate Pancreatic Cancer Experimental Study Animal Model

100% Cure Rate Pancreatic Cancer Experimental Study Animal Model

A research team reports that combining a type of radiation therapy with immunotherapy not only cures pancreatic cancer in mice, but appears to reprogram the immune system to create an ‘immune memory’ in the same way that a vaccine keeps the flu away. The result is that the combination treatment also destroyed pancreatic cells that had spread to the liver, a common site for metastatic disease.

#il-12 #sbrt #pancraticcancercure

Bradley N. Mills, Kelli A. Connolly, Jian Ye, Joseph D. Murphy, Taylor P. Uccello, Booyeon J. Han, Tony Zhao, Michael G. Drage, Aditi Murthy, Haoming Qiu, Ankit Patel, Nathania M. Figueroa, Carl J. Johnston, Peter A. Prieto, Nejat K. Egilmez, Brian A. Belt, Edith M. Lord, David C. Linehan, Scott A. Gerber. Stereotactic Body Radiation and Interleukin-12 Combination Therapy Eradicates Pancreatic Tumors by Repolarizing the Immune Microenvironment. Cell Reports, 2019; 29 (2): 406 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.08.095

https://www.cell.com/cell-reports/fulltext/S2211-1247(19)31157-X?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS221112471931157X%3Fshowall%3Dtrue

Pancreatic cancer, il-12, sbrt, stereotactic body radiotherapy, pancreas, cancer, aggressive, advanced, study, CD8, treatment, immune system, vaccine, cancer vaccine, liver cancer, metastatic

Flavonoid Intake for Maximum Longevity

Flavonoid Intake for Maximum Longevity

Flavonoid Intake for Maximum Longevity

Participants consuming about 500mg of total flavonoids each day had the lowest risk of a cancer or heart disease-related death.

‘Flavonoid intake is associated with lower mortality in the Danish Diet Cancer and Health Cohort,’ Nature Communications (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-11622-x

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-11622-x

Hepatitis B viruses cured – Pilot Study

Hepatitis B viruses cured – Pilot Study

Researchers have for the first time succeeded in conquering a chronic infection of the hepatitis B virus in a mouse model. The team showed in its publication, that T-cell therapy can provide a permanent cure. #hbv #hepatitisb #cure Karin Wisskirchen, Janine Kah, Antje Malo, Theresa Asen, Tassilo Volz, Lena Allweiss, Jochen M. Wettengel, Marc Lütgehetmann, Stephan Urban, Tanja Bauer, Maura Dandri, Ulrike Protzer. T cell receptor grafting allows virological control of hepatitis B virus infection. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2019; DOI: 10.1172/JCI120228 https://www.jci.org/articles/view/120228

Strawberry tree honey may inhibit colon cancer

Strawberry tree honey may inhibit colon cancer

Strawberry tree honey may inhibit colon cancer

Spanish and Italian researchers have proven that when honey from strawberry trees, a product typical of Mediterranean areas, is added to colon cancer cells grown in the laboratory, cell proliferation is stopped.

Sadia Afrin et al. Strawberry tree honey as a new potential functional food. Part 1: Strawberry tree honey reduces colon cancer cell proliferation and colony formation ability, inhibits cell cycle and promotes apoptosis by regulating EGFR and MAPKs signaling pathways, Journal of Functional Foods (2019). DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2019.04.035

#strawberrytreehoney #coloncancer #cancer

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1756464619302221

Mannose impairs tumour growth and enhances chemotherapy

Mannose impairs tumour growth and enhances chemotherapy

Mannose impairs tumour growth and enhances chemotherapy

Tumours use more glucose than normal, healthy tissues. However, it is very hard to control the amount of glucose in your body through diet alone. In this study, the researchers found that mannose can interfere with glucose to reduce how much sugar cancer cells can use*.

Pablo Sierra Gonzalez et al, Mannose impairs tumour growth and enhances chemotherapy, Nature (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0729-3

Tumor, tumours, cancer, mannose, d-mannose, sugar, glucose, energy

Taste and Smell disorders in Chemotherapy alleviated by Lactoferrin Supplementation

Taste and Smell disorders in Chemotherapy alleviated by Lactoferrin Supplementation

Taste and Smell disorders in Chemotherapy alleviated by Lactoferrin Supplementation

Research shows that daily lactoferrin supplementation elicits changes in the salivary protein profiles in cancer patients – changes that may be influential in helping to protect taste buds and odor perception.

Wang, Aili & Duncan, Susan & Dietrich, Andrea & J. Lesser, Glenn & Ray, Keith. (2018). Effect of lactoferrin on taste and smell abnormalities induced by chemotherapy: A proteome analysis. Food & Function. 9. 10.1039/C8FO00813B.

Resveratrol may protect against a mutant protein found in half of all malignant tumors

Resveratrol may protect against a mutant protein found in half of all malignant tumors

 

Resveratrol may protect against a mutant protein found in half of all malignant tumors

A Brazilian study shows the action of resveratrol on the inhibition of amyloid aggregates of mutant p53 protein, a mutation found in more than half of malignant tumors

Danielly C. Ferraz da Costa, Nathali P.C. Campos Ronimara A. Santos, Francisca Hildemagna Guedes-da-Silva, Mafalda Maria D.C. Martins-Dinis, Letícia Zanphorlin, Carlos Ramos, Luciana P. Rangel and Jerson L. Silva Resveratrol prevents p53 aggregation in vitro and in breast cancer cells Oncotarget. 2018; 9:29112-29122. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.25631

High Vitamin D Levels associated with an 82% reduction in Breast Cancer Incidence

High Vitamin D Levels associated with an 82% reduction in Breast Cancer Incidence

High Vitamin D Levels associated with an 82% reduction in Breast Cancer Incidence

“We found that participants with blood levels of 25(OH)D that were above 60 ng/ml had one-fifth the risk of breast cancer compared to those with less than 20 ng/ml,” said principal investigator and co-author Cedric F. Garland, DrPH, adjunct professor in the UC San Diego Department of Family Medicine and Public Health. Risk of cancer appeared to decline with greater levels of serum vitamin D.

Breast cancer risk markedly lower with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations 60 vs 20 ng/ml (150 vs 50 nmol/L): Pooled analysis of two randomized trials and a prospective cohort McDonnell SL, Baggerly CA, French CB, Baggerly LL, Garland CF, et al. (2018) Breast cancer risk markedly lower with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations 60 vs 20 ng/ml (150 vs 50 nmol/L): Pooled analysis of two randomized trials and a prospective cohort. PLOS ONE 13(6): e0199265. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199265

Following five healthy lifestyle habits may increase life expectancy by decade or more

Following five healthy lifestyle habits may increase life expectancy by decade or more

Researchers also found that U.S. women and men who maintained the healthiest lifestyles were 82% less likely to die from cardiovascular disease and 65% less likely to die from cancer when compared with those with the least healthy lifestyles over the course of the roughly 30-year study period.

Impact of Healthy Lifestyle Factors on Life Expectancies in the US Population
Yanping Li, An Pan, Dong D. Wang, Xiaoran Liu, Klodian Dhana, Oscar H. Franco, Stephen Kaptoge, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Meir Stampfer, Walter C. Willett and Frank B. Hu
Circulation. 2018;CIRCULATIONAHA.117.032047, originally published April 30, 2018

 

Hemp shows strong potential for treating cancer

Hemp shows strong potential for treating cancer

Hemp shows strong potential for treating cancer

Results from some of the first studies to examine hemp’s ability to fight cancer show that it might one day be useful as plant-based treatment for ovarian cancer.

KY Hemp-induced Modulation of Ovarian Cancer Cell Metastasis: Sara Biela, Annie Wang, and Wasana K. Sumanasekera The FASEB Journal 2018 32:1_supplement, 667.7-667.7

Eating Nuts may dramatically improve Colon Cancer outcomes

Eating Nuts may dramatically improve Colon Cancer outcomes

 

Those who regularly consumed at least two, one-ounce servings of nuts each week demonstrated a 42% improvement in disease-free survival and a 57% improvement in overall survival.

Nut Consumption and Survival in Patients With Stage III Colon Cancer: Results From CALGB 89803 (Alliance). Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2018; JCO.2017.75.541 DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2017.75.5413

Sugar helps cancer cells regulate voltage

Sugar helps cancer cells regulate voltage

Sugar helps cancer cells regulate voltage

Researchers in an attempt to understand why Cancers will hold onto sugar yet not use it as fuel discovered that Cancer Cells use sugar as a sort of voltage regulator.

1. Ca2 -dependent demethylation of phosphatase PP2Ac promotes glucose deprivation–induced cell death independently of inhibiting glycolysis. Science Signaling, 2018; 11 (512): eaam7893 DOI: 10.1126/scisignal.aam7893

Berry gives cancer therapy a boost

Berry gives cancer therapy a boost

Berry gives cancer therapy a boost
Researchers discover that blueberry when combined with radiation therapy increase it effectiveness from 20% to 70% in vitro. Quote:  “Radiation decreased cancer cells by approximately 20 percent. Interestingly, the cell group that received only blueberry extract had a 25 percent decrease in cancer. However, the biggest decline in cancer cells occurred in the radiation and extract group, with a decrease of about 70 percent.”

Citation: Blueberry as a Potential Radiosensitizer for Treating Cervical Cancer. Pathology & Oncology Research, 2017; DOI: 10.1007/s12253-017-0319-y

Fired for Helping a Young Cancer Patient

Friday, May 16, 2014

PHILADELPHIA (CN) – The University of Pennsylvania Hospital fired a radiation therapist for helping the mother of a pediatric cancer patient – an Eagles fan – get in touch with the football team to try to boost the girl’s spirits, the fired worker claims in court.

Julianne Anttell sued the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania in the Philadelphia County Court of Common Pleas.

Anttell says in the lawsuit that the parents of a girl she had treated invited her to see the girl complete her radiation therapy. The girl, “SB,” and several of her family were wearing Philadelphia Eagles gear for the girl’s last treatment, Anttell says in the complaint.

Continue reading “Fired for Helping a Young Cancer Patient”

‘Prostate cancer test has been misused for money’ Claims Pathologist Richard Ablin who discovered the PSA antigen 40 years ago

"Many men get treated unnecessarily – and risk life-altering side effects including impotence and incontinence"

“Many men get treated unnecessarily – and risk life-altering side effects including impotence and incontinence”

Pathologist Richard Ablin discovered the PSA antigen 40 years ago. He says it should never have been used as a cancer screening tool for all men

Your book condemns the use of PSA for cancer screening. What do you hope to accomplish? I hope to expose how the urology community and drug industry misused the PSA test, putting money over the best interests of patients. I also want to show how the US Food and Drug Administration failed in its duty to the public: its advisers warned that routine PSA screening would cause a public health disaster, but it was approved under pressure from advocacy groups and drug companies. Continue reading “‘Prostate cancer test has been misused for money’ Claims Pathologist Richard Ablin who discovered the PSA antigen 40 years ago”

Older Cancer Patients Are Being ‘Written Off’ ( U.K.) being assessed on age rather than fitness

A study reveals tens of thousands of elderly patients with cancer can survive at least 10 years if they are given treatment.

NHS
4:19am UK, Friday 24 January 2014
Clinical need should drive treatment according to medical experts

Some patients with cancer are being denied treatment because they are too old, according to charity Macmillan Cancer Support.

Elderly patients are being “written off” for treatment after being assessed on age rather than fitness, claimed the charity. Continue reading “Older Cancer Patients Are Being ‘Written Off’ ( U.K.) being assessed on age rather than fitness”

NLST data highlight probability of lung cancer overdiagnosis / overdiagnosis rate for bronchioloalveolar lung cancer was 78.9 percent

Contact: Shawn Farley PR@acr.org 703-648-8936 American College of Radiology

NLST data highlight probability of lung cancer overdiagnosis with low-dose CT screening

Philadelphia, PA—Data from the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST)—conducted by the American College of Radiology Imaging Network and National Cancer Institute Lung Screening Study—provided researchers the opportunity to investigate the probability that a cancer detected with screening low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) would not have progressed to become life threatening. The results of this investigation published online today in JAMA Internal Medicine suggest that up to 18 percent of the cancers detected by LDCT may not have progressed enough to affect patient health if left undetected.

“This is another piece of important information that helps us to better understand the benefits and risks of lung cancer screening,” says the study’s lead author, Edward F. Patz, Jr., M.D., a professor of radiology, and pharmacology and cancer biology at Duke University School of Medicine. Continue reading “NLST data highlight probability of lung cancer overdiagnosis / overdiagnosis rate for bronchioloalveolar lung cancer was 78.9 percent”

Widow Says Death Spurred Employer Profits: Claims Bristol-Myers Squibb had a $6 million life insurance policy on her husband

By LORRAINE BAILEY

 

CHICAGO (CN) – After her husband died, Bristol-Myers Squibb slipped up and accidentally informed his widow that it had taken out a $6 million life insurance policy on the rank-and-file worker, without an insurable interest in him and without telling him or his family about it, the widow claims in court.

Gigi Simmons, administrator of her late husband’s estate, filed a class action against Bristol-Myers Squibb and an “as-yet unknown insurance company,” in Federal Court.

After Bruce Simmons died in 2012, his widow sought financing for his funeral, and provided a third-party financier documents detailing the life-insurance policy Bruce had purchased through his former employer, Bristol-Myers Squibb.

“Bristol-Myers’ benefits department would not verify the coverage when it was contacted by the third-party financier,” the widow says in the complaint.

But when funeral home owner Sam Rawls contacted the drug company, “an employee of the Bristol-Myers’ benefits department told Mr. Rawls that there was a $6,000,000 policy on Mr. Simmons’ life,” the lawsuit states. “Astonished at the amount of the coverage, Mr. Rawls began to question the Bristol-Myers employee about the policy. The employee refused to give Mr. Rawls any additional information and said she probably ‘was not supposed to have said anything about it.’

Continue reading “Widow Says Death Spurred Employer Profits: Claims Bristol-Myers Squibb had a $6 million life insurance policy on her husband”

Health Research Report #169 29 NOV 2013

HRR Logo

169

Health Research Report

WHITE PAPER /ROUGH COPY

169th Issue Date 29 NOV 2013

Compiled By Ralph Turchiano

 

In this Issue:

1.      Bitter melon extract may have potential to fight head and neck cancer
2.      Men with prostate cancer who ate a low-fat fish oil diet showed changes in their cancer tissue
3.      Natural Compound Mitigates Effects of Methamphetamine Abuse, University of Missouri Researchers Find
4.      Introducing solid foods while continuing to breast feed could prevent child allergies
5.      LSUHSC research finds combo of plant nutrients kills breast cancer cells
6.      Regular physical activity in later life boosts likelihood of ‘healthy aging’ up to sevenfold
7.      A touch of garlic helps kill contaminants in baby formula
8.      Micronutrient supplements reduce risk of HIV disease progression and illness
 
  Continue reading “Health Research Report #169 29 NOV 2013”

Boy, 7, born with rare cancer loses his insurance because of Obamacare…leaving his parents needing $50,000 to pay for life-saving chemotherapy

  • A Gainesville, Texas family is fighting  for their cancer-stricken child’s life after he was removed from his insurance  plan
  • Ron and Krista Alford’s seven-year-old  boy Hunter is in need of another round of chemotherapy costing  $50,000
  • He has lost his insurance after an  administrative blunder caused by Obamacare
  • They face a desperate battle to get him  back on his plan as he battle his life-threatening  illness
  • ‘The lady’s like, the only way we can  expedite is if your son was pregnant and in labor, or if he was an illegal,’  Krista said

By  James Nye

PUBLISHED: 13:16 EST, 28  November 2013 |  UPDATED: 16:36 EST, 28 November 2013

Little Hunter Alford needs chemotherapy to  treat the rare and deadly cancer he was born with but has lost his health  insurance under an administrative blunder seemingly caused by  Obamacare.

While the president’s signature policy  promised that no one with a pre-existing condition would not be covered, the  Affordable Care Act has seemingly caused the seven-year-old Gainesville, Texas,  boy to face an agonizing wait for treatment as his parents battle to get him  back on his insurance plan.

‘Why would you cancel a kid?’ asked his  mother Krista Alford. ‘I really want to send Obama and all of them pictures of  my son. He has scars all over his head. He doesn’t want to leave the house  because he’s afraid people are going to make fun of him because he’s  bald.’

Desperate: Hunter Alford needs treatment for his rare cancer but has been left uninsured after a administrative glitch caused by the introduction of ObamacareDesperate: Hunter Alford needs treatment for his rare cancer but has been left uninsured after a administrative glitch caused by the introduction of Obamacare

Desperate: Hunter Alford needs treatment for his rare  cancer but has been left uninsured after a administrative glitch caused by the  introduction of Obamacare

Continue reading “Boy, 7, born with rare cancer loses his insurance because of Obamacare…leaving his parents needing $50,000 to pay for life-saving chemotherapy”

LSUHSC research finds combo of plant nutrients killed 100% of sample breast cancer cells

Contact: Leslie Capo lcapo@lsuhsc.edu 504-568-4806 Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

New Orleans, LA – A study led by Madhwa Raj, PhD, Research Professor in Obstetrics and Gynecology at LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans and its Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center, has found that a super cocktail of six natural compounds in vegetables, fruits, spices and plant roots killed 100% of sample breast cancer cells without toxic side effects on normal cells. The results, which also revealed potential treatment target genes, are published in the November 2013 issue of The Journal of Cancer.

Continue reading “LSUHSC research finds combo of plant nutrients killed 100% of sample breast cancer cells”

Bitter melon extract may have potential to fight head and neck cancer

Contact: Riya V. Anandwala ranandwa@slu.edu 314-977-8018 Saint Louis University

ST. LOUIS – Extract taken from an Asian vegetable may have therapeutic qualities to treat head and neck cancer, a Saint Louis University researcher has found.

Continue reading “Bitter melon extract may have potential to fight head and neck cancer”

167th Health Research Report 01 NOV 2013

 Health Research Report

167

Health Research Report

WHITE PAPER /ROUGH COPY

167th Issue Date 01 NOV 2013

Compiled By Ralph Turchiano

www.vit.bz www.youtube.com/vhfilm www.engineeringevil.com www.healthresearchreport.me

 

In this Issue:

  1. ·        Coffee consumption reduces risk of liver cancer

  2. ·        How does ursolic acid induce neural regeneration after sciatic nerve injury?

  3. ·        Potential Cancer and Multiple Sclerosis Treatments from Cannabinoids

  4. ·        Oregon researchers say supplement cuts muscle loss in knee replacements

  5. ·        Study examines expedited FDA drug approvals, safety questions remain

  6. ·        HDL cholesterol controls blood glucose

  7. ·        Oligomeric proanthocyanidin suppresses the death of retinal ganglion cells

 

Coffee consumption reduces risk of liver cancer

Bethesda, MD (Oct. 22, 2013) — Coffee consumption reduces risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer, by about 40 percent, according to an up-to-date meta-analysis published in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. Further, some data indicate that three cups of coffee per day reduce liver cancer risk by more than 50 percent.

“Our research confirms past claims that coffee is good for your health, and particularly the liver,” said Carlo La Vecchia, MD, study author from the department of epidemiology, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” and department of clinical sciences and community health, Università degli Studi di Milan, Italy. “The favorable effect of coffee on liver cancer might be mediated by coffee’s proven prevention of diabetes, a known risk factor for the disease, or for its beneficial effects on cirrhosis and liver enzymes.”

Researchers performed a meta-analysis of articles published from 1996 through September 2012, ultimately studying 16 high-quality studies and a total of 3,153 cases. This research fills an important gap as the last meta-analysis was published in 2007, and since then there has been data published on more than 900 cases of HCC.

Despite the consistency of results across studies, time periods and populations, it is difficult to establish whether the association between coffee drinking and HCC is causal, or if this relationship may be partially attributable to the fact that patients with liver and digestive diseases often voluntarily reduce their coffee intake.

“It remains unclear whether coffee drinking has an additional role in liver cancer prevention,” added Dr. La Vecchia. “But, in any case, such a role would be limited as compared to what is achievable through the current measures.”

Primary liver cancers are largely avoidable through hepatitis B virus vaccination, control of hepatitis C virus transmission and reduction of alcohol drinking. These three measures can, in principle, avoid more than 90 percent of primary liver cancer worldwide.

Liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world, and the third most common cause of cancer death. HCC is the main type of liver cancer, accounting for more than 90 percent of cases worldwide. Chronic infections with hepatitis B and C viruses are the main causes of liver cancer; other relevant risk factors include alcohol, tobacco, obesity and diabetes.

How does ursolic acid induce neural regeneration after sciatic nerve injury?

Ursolic acid (chemical name 3-hydroxy-12- ursen-28-oic acid) is a triterpenoid extracted from natural plant-based drugs, and has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-scarring effects, and it regulates the immune system and promotes the repair of injured neurons.However, no reports have explored its role in peripheral nerve injury. A recent study by Prof. Jiajun Chen and team from China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, China established mouse models of sciatic nerve injury through unilateral sciatic nerve complete transection and microscopic anastomosis. The successfully generated model mice were treated with 10, 5, or 2.5 mg/kg ursolic acid via intraperitoneal injection. This study, published in the Neural Regeneration Research (Vol. 8, No. 27, 2013), is the first to demonstrate a role of ursolic acid in repair and regeneration following peripheral nerve injury. Ursolic acid promoted the regeneration of injured nerve myelin sheaths and reconstructed muscular functions. All experimental findings provide favorable evidence for the application of ursolic acid following peripheral nerve injury.

 

Potential Cancer and Multiple Sclerosis Treatments from Cannabinoids

Contributing Author Claire Duplan

The search for potential medical applications for the compounds that are present in the marijuana or cannabis plant has included studies into the efficacy of various compounds for the treatment of a range of diseases, including cancer, multiple sclerosis, anxiety and depression. However, although advances have been made in strategies to limit the addictive effects of drugs like cannabis, the use of these compounds in medicine has been hampered by the potential for adverse effects.

Medical Research into Cannabis-Derived Compounds

Much of the research has involved isolating compounds found in the cannabis plant and testing their efficacy as medical treatments. Researchers isolated the primary active component of cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in 1964, but any potential medical applications of this compound must take into account its negative side effects, including its hallucinogenic and addictive properties. Addiction is a significant consideration for pharmaceutical drugs as well as illegal substances, since it can lead to serious additional health and social problems, as described by DrugAbuse.com. Researchers have therefore attempted to find non-addictive substances in the cannabis plant that might have similar medicinal effects, leading to the discovery of a cannabinoid that may help to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) just as effectively as THC, as well as to the recent research into the anti-cancer properties of cannabinoids.

Cannabinoids for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment

A study of cannabidiol (CBD), which is the second most plentiful cannabinoid in the marijuana plant, after THC, found that it could effectively reduce the type of inflammation associated with MS, without risking the same mind-altering side effects. The researchers treated mouse immune cells of the type that can attack and damage the brain and spinal cord, with either THC or CBD, and found that both chemicals reduced production of inflammatory molecules. The effect was particularly strong for the production of interleukin 17, a molecule that has been associated with the nerve cell damage that occurs in MS, a disease in which the immune system attacks the nervous system. Both THC and CBD appeared to prevent the immune cells from producing the inflammatory molecules that can harm the nerve cells, suggesting that they might be useful for the treatment of MS. The therapeutic potential of CBD is particularly exciting, since it does not carry the same risk of side effects as THC.

Cannabinoids for Cancer Treatment

A similarly important result was obtained in a study that looked at the potential for non-THC compounds from the marijuana plant to act against cancer cells. THC had previously been found to have significant anti-cancer properties, but as in the case of MS, the addictive and mind-altering qualities of the chemical had offset these benefits and raised concerns about its use in medicine. The new study examined the efficacy of a selection of other cannabis-derived compounds as anti-cancer agents.

The study was conducted by a group based at St George’s, University of London, which has previously undertaken research into the potential medical uses of cannabis-derived compounds. The current work explored the anti-cancer activity of six cannabinoid compounds. Two of these were different forms of cannabidiol, two were cannabigevarins, and two were cannabigerols. Together, these six compounds represent the most abundant forms of cannabinoids in the marijuana plant, other than the hallucinogenic THC. All of these cannabinoids lack the mind altering properties of THC, making them potentially more useful chemicals for medical treatment.

The researchers, led by Dr Wai Liu, tested the anti-cancer activity of these compounds against leukemia cells. Each of the six cannabinoids that was studied was found to be just as effective against cancer cells as THC, and when used in combination with one another, they were found to produce even greater effects. The cannabinoids were able to prevent the growth and development of the cancer cells, and even to kill them when applied in specific dosages.

Dr Liu believes that these cannabinoids show great promise as anti-cancer drugs, and are likely to produce minimal side effects, especially when compared to a compound like THC, which is known to have potential negative effects in addition to its anti-cancer properties. Cannabinoids can be produced easily and inexpensively, making them a potential source of new, lower cost cancer treatments. He describes this study as “a critical step in unpicking the mysteries of cannabis as a source of medicine”, a mystery that his research group will continue to explore in the future, particularly by testing the use of cannabinoids in combination with existing cancer treatments.

Oregon researchers say supplement cuts muscle loss in knee replacements

Package of 8 essential amino acids, taken after physical therapy, also helps to speed recovery

EUGENE, Ore. — (Oct. 25, 2013) — Twenty grams of essential amino acids taken twice daily for a week before and for two weeks after knee-replacement surgeries helped 16 patients, mean age 69, recover faster and with much less muscle atrophy than a control group ingesting a placebo.

The approach — detailed in a paper now online ahead of print in the Nov. 13 issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation — could spell relief and speed recovery for a growing population of aging adults who face total knee-replacements because of loss of mobility and pain problems. An estimated 3.48 million Americans are projected to need the surgery, known as total knee arthroplasty (TKA), by 2030.

The findings are part of an ongoing collaboration led by Hans C. Dreyer, a professor of human physiology at the University of Oregon, with the Eugene-based Slocum Research & Education Foundation and the Oregon Research Institute.

Atrophy in the quadriceps, a group of four muscles on the front of the thigh, has been a long-running problem following knee-replacement surgeries, Dreyer said.

In the study, 12 members of a control group receiving 40 grams a day of a non-essential amino acid supplement, a placebo, averaged an 18.4 loss in quadriceps muscle mass in their operated leg six weeks after surgery; those getting the supplement of eight essential amino acids (EEA) averaged a 6.2 percent loss. Eighty percent of atrophy occurred in the first two weeks after surgery. Atrophy in non-operative legs was about 50 percent of that in the operative leg in both groups. Muscle mass changes were seen with magnetic resonance imaging done at two and six weeks after surgery.

“We’ve learned that the essential amino acids were able to mitigate the amount of muscle loss,” Dreyer said. “The functional measures that we looked at — getting up out of a chair, going up a flight of stairs and going back down the stairs — were all back to baseline in the treatment group, whereas in the placebo group those times on all of the functional measures were much longer. That suggests that this is a means at which we can accelerate functional recovery.”

Faster recovery is a big plus for patients, because most of them have been dealing with pain for a long time, said Dr. Brian A. Jewett, a surgeon at the Slocum Center for Orthopedics & Sports Medicine.

“Walking and being physically active are difficult for them pre-operatively and post-operatively, but for different reasons,” he said. “Surgery removes the pre-operative pain and disability, and physical therapy helps restore range of motion and strength post-operatively. EAA appear to facilitate this process, presumably by reducing muscle loss. In the end, if I can get my patients able to go up and down stairs and get up from a chair sooner then this is much better for their overall health, and we saw this occur 6 weeks after surgery in the EAA group. This also suggests a durability-of-treatment effect because EAA treatment was stopped two weeks after surgery and functional mobility measures were recorded four weeks later, or six weeks after TKA. This is clinically very important to me and my patients.”

Six weeks after surgery, patients in the control group took 32 percent more time to rise from a chair, walk three meters (about 10 feet), turn around and sit back down, compared to before surgery. Patients receiving essential amino acids took about the same amount of time as before surgery. Control patients took even longer to maneuver stairs after surgery. Again, times remained the same for the EEA group pre- and post-operatively.

“As we’ve measured it,” Dreyer said, “many who have this surgery experience significant and rapid loss of muscle mass despite the fact that their activity level does not change dramatically relative to pre-surgery, which is low to begin with because of their knee pain.”

The essential amino acid supplement contained rapidly absorbed raw amino acids — a mix of histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine and valine. Essential amino acids, which are not naturally produced by the body and must come from food sources, help the body in many ways, including tissue repair.

The placebo was alanine, a non-essential amino acid. Both supplements were mixed into pudding, cereal or carbonated beverage based on patient choice. Supplements were consumed an hour after physical therapy to take advantage of optimum protein synthesis after resistance exercises.

Researchers hope to expand their work to see how a longer duration of supplementation affects patients at six months and a year after surgery. Another potential benefit, Jewett said, is that combined with technological improvements in the components used in knee-joint replacement surgeries, such supplementation with essential amino acids may allow for the possibility of patients who elect to undergo surgery earlier in life to return to work and daily activities faster, which are important outcomes for patients.

“If this supplementation can accelerate recovery and reduce muscle loss, then that represents an advancement in TKA that has not received as much attention as component development and survivorship,” Jewett said. “In other words, essential amino acids supplementation represents a major advancement on the rehabilitation front. I think about EAA supplementation as a potentially low-cost opportunity to jump-start the rehab process. We know that patients who are more engaged participants in their post-operative therapy often have better outcomes. Our ability to mitigate muscle atrophy may lead to earlier achievement of functional mobility, which gets our patients out of the hospital, back in their homes, to work and enjoying recreational activities faster, and that’s my goal as their surgeon.”

Dreyer’s group is pursuing a grant for a five-year, single-site clinical trial to follow patients for up to a year to explore longer-term impacts of EAA supplementation on muscle volume and functional mobility. Also included are studies designed to identify the mechanisms of action, the durability of effect and the safety and potential benefits of longer dosing times. The group also plans to assess the impacts of treatment on the quality of life of patients and their engagement, or patient activation, in their own health-care needs.

“Researchers at the University of Oregon and their collaborators are making important discoveries that promise to improve people’s lives and benefit human health,” said Kimberly Andrews Espy, vice president for research and innovation and dean of the graduate school at the University of Oregon. “This study may result in better outcomes for the millions of people who undergo knee replacement surgeries and represents the tremendous value of these kinds of innovative research-industry partnerships.”

Study examines expedited FDA drug approvals, safety questions remain

Fewer patients were studied as part of expedited reviews of new drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2008 and some safety questions remain unanswered, according to a study published by JAMA Internal Medicine, a JAMA Network publication.

The FDA is authorized to make new drugs available more quickly if they would be a significant therapeutic advancement and if they fulfill unmet therapeutic needs for serious illnesses, according to the study background.

Thomas J. Moore, A.B., of the Institute for Safe Medication Practices, Alexandria, Va., and Curt D. Furberg, M.D., Ph.D., of the Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, N.C., examined development times, clinical testing, post-market follow-up and safety risks for the new drugs approved by the FDA in 2008, when most provisions of current law, regulation and policies were in effect.

That year, the FDA approved 20 therapeutic drugs (eight under expedited review and 12 under standard review). The study findings indicate that expedited drugs took a median (midpoint) of 5.1 years of clinical development to get marketing approval compared with 7.5 years for the drugs that underwent standard review, according to the study results.

The expedited drugs were tested for efficacy in a median 104 patients compared with a median 580 patients for standard review. By 2013, many postmarketing studies to gather additional evidence on the safety of expedited drugs had not been completed, according to researchers.

“The testing of new drugs has shifted from a situation in which most testing was conducted prior to initial approval to a situation in which many innovative drugs are more rapidly approved after a small trial in a narrower patient population with extensive additional testing conducted after approval,” the authors conclude. “Our findings suggest that the shift has made it more difficult to balance the benefits and risks of new drugs. Further systematic assessment of the standards and procedures for testing new drugs is needed.”

(JAMA Intern Med. Published online October 28, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.11813. Available pre-embargo to the media at http://media.jamanetwork.com.)

Editor’s Note: Please see article for additional information, including other authors, author contributions and affiliations, financial disclosures, funding and support, etc.

Commentary: Can Expedited Drug Approval Without Expedited Follow-up Be Trusted?

In a related commentary, Daniel Carpenter, Ph.D., of Harvard University, Boston, writes: “The findings of Moore and Furberg underscore the continuing importance of rigorous premarket studies of ample size. If the critical phrase ‘serious or life-threatening conditions that would address an unmet medical need’ is defined broadly enough (and there are lobbying efforts to define it as broadly as possible), the future of evidence for pharmaceuticals in the United States will look more like 100 patients for efficacy trials instead of 500 patients.”

“If the FDA’s requirements for new drugs, both premarket and postmarket, are weakened, trust in both the efficacy and safety of prescription drugs is likely to be weakened. The stakes of the current policy debates could not be higher. There is scarcely a feature of the American health care system that does not depend on evidence-based trust in prescription drugs, ratified and enforced by the FDA,” Carpenter concludes.

(JAMA Intern Med. Published online October 28, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.9202. Available pre-embargo to the media at http://media.jamanetwork.com.)

Editor’s Note: Please see article for additional information, including other authors, author contributions and affiliations, financial disclosures, funding and support, etc.

HDL cholesterol controls blood glucose

Neuherberg, 30.10.2013. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), the so-called “good“ cholesterol improves blood glucose levels by enhancing skeletal muscle function and reducing adiposity, scientists of the Helmholtz Zentrum München report in the current issue of the renown American Heart Association Journal ‚Circulation‘.

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease rates are markedly increased in individuals with type 2 diabetes. One of the strongest independent predictors of cardiovascular disease in these patients is a low circulating level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I). An international team of scientists led by Dr. Susanna Hofmann from the Institute of Diabetes and Regeneration Research at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), Partner of the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), and Dr. Maarit Lehti from the LIKES Research Center for Sport and Health Sciences, Jyväskylä, Finland, have now determined that normal circulating HDL levels are required for proper skeletal muscle metabolism and function. In their study, Hofmann and her team observed that without ApoA-I, burning of calories is reduced in skeletal muscle resulting in increased blood glucose and weaker muscle function. The scientists then determined that HDL cholesterol and its protein ApoA-I both enhance usage of glucose and calories inside muscle cells. Raising HDL and ApoA-I levels in animal models resulted in protection against hyperglycemia and age-related symptoms such as decline of muscle performance or fat mass gain. Improved calorie burning in mitochondria (the “power plants” in each cell) was further indicated by a marked reduction of circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 21, a novel biomarker for mitochondrial dysfunction. “Our results link for the first time low HDL-cholesterol with impaired use of glucose and burning of calories in type 2 diabetes. ApoA-I analogues are now clinically tested for the prevention and regression of atherosclerosis. Based on our findings described herein, these analogs may offer underappreciated potential for therapeutic opportunities in diabetes”, explains Hofmann, who investigates interactions of fat and glucose metabolism with her international team. She adds: “Most importantly, our results are highly relevant for women with type 2 diabetes. Their risk for cardiovascular diseases compared to men with type 2 diabetes is significantly increased, because these women have low concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and ApoA-I.” The numerous conditions associated with overweight and obesity, such as T2D, are among the major widespread diseases in Germany. They are the focus of the research at the Helmholtz Zentrum München.

Oligomeric proanthocyanidin suppresses the death of retinal ganglion cells

The death of retinal ganglion cells is a hallmark of many optic neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma and retinopathy. Oxidative stress is one of the major reasons to cause the cell death. A latest study, published in the Neural Regeneration Research (Vol. 8, No. 25, 2013), has shown that grape seed extract can protect retinal ganglion cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. In this study, Prof. Kwok-Fai So, an academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Prof. Daxiang Lu from Jinan University, China show that oligomeric proanthocyanidin, enriched in grape seeds, has a protective effect on retinal ganglion cells against oxidative stress-induced injury, as confirmed by using both RGC-5 cell lines and retinal explant culture. These findings imply a potential application of oligomeric proanthocyanidin in the clinical treatment of many neural diseases, from glaucoma, ischemia to neurodegenerative disease

v

These reports are done with the appreciation of all the Doctors, Scientist, and other Medical Researchers who sacrificed their time and effort. In order to give people the ability to empower themselves. Without base aspirations of fame, or fortune. Just honorable people, doing honorable things.

 

 

Coffee consumption reduces risk of liver cancer / By over 40%

Contact: Aimee Frank media@gastro.org 301-941-2620 American Gastroenterological Association

Bethesda, MD (Oct. 22, 2013) — Coffee consumption reduces risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer, by about 40 percent, according to an up-to-date meta-analysis published in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. Further, some data indicate that three cups of coffee per day reduce liver cancer risk by more than 50 percent.

“Our research confirms past claims that coffee is good for your health, and particularly the liver,” said Carlo La Vecchia, MD, study author from the department of epidemiology, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” and department of clinical sciences and community health, Università degli Studi di Milan, Italy. “The favorable effect of coffee on liver cancer might be mediated by coffee’s proven prevention of diabetes, a known risk factor for the disease, or for its beneficial effects on cirrhosis and liver enzymes.”

Researchers performed a meta-analysis of articles published from 1996 through September 2012, ultimately studying 16 high-quality studies and a total of 3,153 cases. This research fills an important gap as the last meta-analysis was published in 2007, and since then there has been data published on more than 900 cases of HCC.

Despite the consistency of results across studies, time periods and populations, it is difficult to establish whether the association between coffee drinking and HCC is causal, or if this relationship may be partially attributable to the fact that patients with liver and digestive diseases often voluntarily reduce their coffee intake.

“It remains unclear whether coffee drinking has an additional role in liver cancer prevention,” added Dr.  La Vecchia. “But, in any case, such a role would be limited as compared to what is achievable through the current measures.”

Primary liver cancers are largely avoidable through hepatitis B virus vaccination, control of hepatitis C virus transmission and reduction of alcohol drinking. These three measures can, in principle, avoid more than 90 percent of primary liver cancer worldwide.

Liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world, and the third most common cause of cancer death. HCC is the main type of liver cancer, accounting for more than 90 percent of cases worldwide. Chronic infections with hepatitis B and C viruses are the main causes of liver cancer; other relevant risk factors include alcohol, tobacco, obesity and diabetes.

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Learn more about liver cancer in AGA’s patient brochure, “Understanding Cirrhosis of the Liver”.

About the AGA Institute

The American Gastroenterological Association is the trusted voice of the GI community. Founded in 1897, the AGA has grown to include 17,000 members from around the globe who are involved in all aspects of the science, practice and advancement of gastroenterology. The AGA Institute administers the practice, research and educational programs of the organization. http://www.gastro.org.

About Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

The mission of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology is to provide readers with a broad spectrum of themes in clinical gastroenterology and hepatology. This monthly peer-reviewed journal includes original articles as well as scholarly reviews, with the goal that all articles published will be immediately relevant to the practice of gastroenterology and hepatology. For more information, visit http://www.cghjournal.org.

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Angelina Jolie fears she has only 3 years to live: Reports

Sun, Sep 22, 2013

Lollipop

Angelina Jolie is very concerned about her mortality, and is reportedly worried that she will die at a very young age due to her family history.

According to an article on Asian Town, reports reveal that the fiance of Brad Pitt and the mother of six young children worries she could have as little as three years to live.

Globe magazine reported that Angie is so concerned about dying that she has secretly written up a “bucket list” of goals to complete before she dies.

Angelina Jolie who is only 38-years-old recently underwent a preventive double mastectomy to minimize her risk of breast cancer and plans to have ­additional surgery due to an elevated risk of ovarian cancer.

Sources close to Brad and Angelina reveal:

“Angelina is trying to live her life to the fullest because she feels deep down that she doesn’t have much time left.

“She’s going to do everything she can to prolong her life but really believes she won’t even reach her mid-forties.”

Angelina’s worries about dying young are stemmed from her family history. Angie’s mother, Marcheline Ber­trand, died at 56 following a long battle with ovarian cancer. The actress also lost her maternal grandfather, grandmother and uncle to cancer.

“There is no longevity on my mother’s side,” An­gelina previously told Esquire magazine.

“She’s trying to cram everything into her life right now because she feels she could be gone in as little as three years,” revealed a concerned insider.

Family sources claim that this is one of the reasons that Angie and Brad have decided to go ahead and marry soon so there are no disputes when she passes on. She’s getting her affairs in order and wants her six children to be well taken care of.

 

http://www.divaasia.com/article/24037

Young breast cancer patients often overestimate benefit of having healthy breast removed (unlikely to improve their chance of survival )

Contact: Robbin Ray robbin_ray@dfci.harvard.edu 617-632-4090 Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

BOSTON — Young women with breast cancer often overestimate the odds that cancer will occur in their other, healthy breast, and decide to have the healthy breast surgically removed, a survey conducted by Dana-Farber Cancer Institute investigators indicates. The survey also shows that many patients opt for the procedure  —  known as a contralateral prophylactic mastectomy, or CPM  —  despite knowing it will be unlikely to improve their chance of survival.

The study, published in the Sept. 17 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine, shows a certain disconnect between what many patients know on an abstract, intellectual level  —  that CPM has little impact on survival rates for most women  —  and the choices they make after receiving the anxiety-inducing diagnosis of breast cancer, the authors say.

“An increasing percentage of women treated for early-stage breast cancer are choosing to have CPM,” says the study’s lead author, Shoshana Rosenberg, ScD, MPH, of the Susan F. Smith Center for Women’s Cancers at Dana-Farber. “The trend is particularly notable among younger women.”

The survey results, explains Rosenberg, suggest that many patients are going into this decision with an unrealistic sense of the benefits of CPM, and of the risks. “Improving the communication of those risks and benefits  —  together with better management of anxiety surrounding diagnosis  —  and providing patients with the support they need to make decisions based on solid evidence  —  are worthwhile steps,” says Rosenberg.

In the survey, researchers canvassed 123 women age 40 or younger who had undergone a bilateral mastectomy  —  the removal of both breasts  —  despite having cancer in only one breast. Respondents answered questions about their reasons for having the procedure, their knowledge of its risks and benefits, and their satisfaction with the outcome.

Almost all the women said they opted for CPM out of a desire to improve their chances of survival and prevent the cancer from spreading to other parts of the body. At the same time, however, most understood that removing both breasts does not extend survival for women who are free of an inherited genetic predisposition to breast cancer.

To explain this apparent contradiction, the authors write, “Most women acknowledge that CPM does not improve survival, but anxiety and fear of recurrence probably influence them during the decision-making process.”

The survey also indicated that women who don’t inherit an increased genetic risk of breast cancer tend to overestimate the chance that cancer will develop in both breasts. They estimated that 10 out of 100 women with cancer in one breast would develop cancer in the other breast within five years. The actual risk of that happening is approximately 2 to 4 percent.

By contrast, respondents who did have an inherited predisposition to breast cancer  —  as a result of a mutation in the genes BRCA1 or BRCA2, for example  —  more accurately perceived their risk for cancer in both breasts.

Even as they overestimated the benefits of CPM, many of the participants underestimated the severity of some of its side effects. Many respondents said the effect of CPM on their appearance was worse than they had expected. A substantial proportion of the respondents  —  42 percent  —  reported that their sense of sexuality after CPM was worse than expected, although other studies have not found sexual problems to be prevalent.

“Our findings underscore how important it is that doctors effectively communicate the risks and benefits of CPM to women,” Rosenberg says. “We need to be sure that women are making informed decisions, supported decisions, based on an accurate understanding of the pros and cons of the procedure, and in a setting where anxiety and concerns can be addressed.”

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The senior author of the study is Ann Partridge, MD, MPH, of the Susan F. Smith Center for Women’s Cancers and director of the Program for Young Women with Breast Cancer at Dana-Farber.

Co-authors are Michaela Tracy, Meghan Meyer, Shari Gelber, MS, MSW, Judi Hirshfield-Bartek, MS, and Eric Winer, MD, of the Susan F. Smith Center for Women’s Cancers at Dana-Farber; Karen Sepucha, PhD, and Lidia Schapira, MD, of Massachusetts General Hospital; Susan Troyan, MD, of Brigham and Women’s Hospital; Monica Morrow, MD, of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; and Steven Come, MD, of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

Funding for the study was provided by the National Cancer Institute (NIH 5 R25 CA057711) and Susan G. Komen for the Cure.

Written by Rob Levy

About Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute is a principal teaching affiliate of the Harvard Medical School and is among the leading cancer research and care centers in the United States. It is a founding member of the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center, designated a comprehensive cancer center by the National Cancer Institute. It provides adult cancer care with Brigham and Women’s Hospital as Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women’s Cancer Center and it provides pediatric care with Boston Children’s Hospital as Dana-Farber/Boston Children’s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center. Dana-Farber is the top ranked cancer center in New England, according to U.S. News & World Report, and one of the largest recipients among independent hospitals of National Cancer Institute and National Institutes of Health grant funding. Follow Dana-Farber on Facebook and on Twitter.

163rd Health Research Report Synopsis 07 SEP 2013

 

Health Research Report

163rd Issue Date 7 SEP 2013

Compiled By Ralph Turchiano

www.healthresearchreport.me 

In this issue:

  1. Four or more cups of coffee a day may keep prostate cancer recurrence and progression away
  2. Broccoli could be key in the fight against osteoarthritis
  3. Potential diagnostic marker for zinc status offers insights into the effects of zinc deficiency
  4. Doubling the daily allowance of protein intake with diet and exercise protects muscle loss
  5. Oral nutritional supplements demonstrate significant health and cost benefits
  6. 1 in 4 has alarmingly few intestinal bacteria
  7. Aging really is ‘in your head’
  8. Exercise may reduce the risk of epilepsy later in life for men
  9. Antioxidant effect of resveratrol in the treatment of vascular dementia

161st Health Research Report 10 AUG 2013 – Synopsis

www.healthresearchreport.me 

 

 

In this issue:

1.       Plant-Based Compound May Inhibit HIV Infection, Research Shows

2.       Methamphetamine increases susceptibility to deadly fungal infection

3.       Exercise May be the Best Medicine for Alzheimer’s

4.       Study finds evidence of nerve damage in around half of fibromyalgia patients

5.       Blocking sugar intake may reduce cancer risk or progression in obese and diabetic people

6.       Fatty acids could aid cancer prevention and treatment

7.       Illinois scientists put cancer-fighting power back into frozen broccoli

8.       Diets of Pregnant Women Contain Harmful, Hidden Toxins

9.       L-3-n-butylphthalide protects against cognitive dysfunction in vascular dementia

 ScreenHunter_42 Dec. 31 12.07

Health Research Report

161st Issue Date 10 AUG 2013

Compiled By Ralph Turchiano

www.vit.bz

www.youtube.com/vhfilm

 www.facebook.com/engineeringevil

Omega-3 Fatty acids could aid cancer prevention and treatment

Contact: Katrina Coutts k.coutts@qmul.ac.uk Queen Mary, University of London

             IMAGE:   This shows untreated cancer keratonicytes.

Click here for more information.     

fatty acids, contained in oily fish such as salmon and trout, selectively inhibit growth and induce cell death in early and late-stage oral and skin cancers, according to new research from scientists at Queen Mary, University of London.

In vitro tests showed omega-3 fatty acids induced cell death in malignant and pre-malignant cells at doses which did not affect normal cells, suggesting they have the potential to be used in both the treatment and prevention of certain skin and oral cancers. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids cannot be made by humans in large quantities and so we must acquire them from our diet.

The scientists were studying a particular type of cancer called squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC). Squamous cells are the main part of the outermost layers of the skin, and SCC is one of the major forms of skin cancer. However, squamous cells also occur in the lining of the digestive tract, lungs, and other areas of the body. Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are the sixth most common cancer worldwide and are difficult and very expensive to treat.

In the experiments, the scientists grew cell cultures in the lab from several different cells lines to which they added fatty acids. The cell lines included both malignant oral and skin SCCs, along with pre-malignant cells and normal skin and oral cells. Professor Kenneth Parkinson, Head of the Oral Cancer Research Group at Queen Mary’s Institute of Dentistry, said: “We found that the omega-3 fatty acid selectively inhibited the growth of the malignant and pre-malignant cells at doses which did not affect the normal cells.

“Surprisingly, we discovered this was partly due to an over-stimulation of a key growth factor (epidermal growth factor) which triggered cell death. This is a novel mechanism of action of these fatty acids.”

While previous research has linked omega-3 fatty acids with the prevention of a number of cancers, there has been very little work done on oral cancers or normal cells.

             IMAGE:   This shows omega-3 treated cancer keratinocytes.

Click here for more information.     

Dr Zacharoula Nikolakopoulou, carried out the research while studying her PhD at Queen Mary, under the supervision of Professor Parkinson and Professor Adina Michael-Titus, who is co-ordinating a programme of work on the protection of the nervous system with omega-3 fatty acids, in the Centre for Neuroscience and Trauma at Queen Mary’s Blizard Institute.

Dr Nikolakopoulou said: “As the doses needed to kill the cancer cells do not affect normal cells, especially with one particular fatty acid we used called Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), there is potential for using omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of skin and oral cancers.

“It may be that those at an increased risk of such cancers – or their recurrence – could benefit from increased omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, as the skin and oral cancers are often easily accessible, there is the potential to deliver targeted doses locally via aerosols or gels. However further research is needed to define the appropriate therapeutic doses.”

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The research is published online in the journal Carcinogenesis.

Zacharoula Nikolakopoulou, Georgios Nteliopoulos, Adina Teodora Michael-Titus, and Eric Kenneth Parkinson, ‘Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids selectively inhibit growth in neoplastic oral keratinocytes by differentially activating ERK1/2’. Carcinogenesis. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgt257

The original manuscript of this paper has been published online, ahead of print publication, at: http://carcin.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/07/24/carcin.bgt257.full.pdf+html

Digest This: Cure for Cancer May Live in Our Intestines / People will not die from cancer, if our prediction is true

The discovery of Robo1 protein in the intestinal stem cells (depicted in yellow) leads to tolerance of higher doses of chemoradiation for cancer patients. (Credit: Dr. Wei-Jie Zhou)

July 31, 2013 — Treating a cancerous tumor is like watering a houseplant with a fire hose — too much water kills the plant, just as too much chemotherapy and radiation kills the patient before it kills the tumor.

However, if the patient’s gastrointestinal tract remains healthy and functioning, the patient’s chances of survival increase exponentially, said Jian-Guo Geng, associate professor at the University of Michigan School of Dentistry. Recently, Geng’s lab discovered a biological mechanism that preserves the gastrointestinal tracts in mice who were delivered lethal doses of chemotherapy.

The findings, which will appear in the journal Nature, could revolutionize cancer therapy, Geng said.

“It’s our belief that this could eventually cure later-staged metastasized cancer. People will not die from cancer, if our prediction is true,” said Geng, who emphasized that the findings had not yet been proven in humans. “All tumors from different tissues and organs can be killed by high doses of chemotherapy and radiation, but the current challenge for treating the later-staged metastasized cancer is that you actually kill the patient before you kill the tumor.

“Now you have a way to make a patient tolerate to lethal doses of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this way, the later-staged, metastasized cancer can be eradicated by increased doses of chemotherapy and radiation.”

Geng’s lab found that when certain proteins bind with a specific molecule on intestinal stem cells, it revs intestinal stem cells into overdrive for intestinal regeneration and repair. Stem cells naturally heal damaged organs and tissues, but so-called “normal” amounts of stem cells in the intestine simply cannot keep up with the wreckage left behind by the lethal doses of chemotherapy and radiation required to successfully treat late-stage tumors.

However, the phalanx of extra stem cells protect the intestine and gastrointestinal tract, which means the patient can ingest nutrients, the body can perform other critical functions and the bacterial toxins in the intestine are prevented from entering the blood circulation, Geng said.

These factors could give the patient just enough of an extra edge to survive the stronger doses of chemotherapy and radiation, until the tumor or tumors are eradicated.

In the study, 50-to-75 percent of the mice treated with the molecule survived otherwise lethal doses of chemotherapy. All of the mice that did not receive the molecule died, Geng said.

“If you can keep the gut going, you can keep the patient going longer,” Geng said. “Now we have found a way to protect the intestine. The next step is to aim for a 100-percent survival rate in mice who are injected with the molecules and receive lethal doses of chemotherapy and radiation.”

Geng’s lab has worked with these molecules, called R-spondin1 and Slit2, for more than a decade. These molecules repair tissue in combination with intestinal stem cells residing in the adult intestine.

Health Research Report 29 JUL 2013

Topics:
DHA for Chronic Pain – Annal of Neurology
Vitamins and Minerals as an alternative psychiatric medications – 2013 IFT
Ginkgo Biloba Extract for Effectively treats Vascular Dementia – Neural Regeneration Research V8 N18 2013
BPA – Damages Teeth Enamel  – AJP
BPA- Causes Obesity in Puberty age Girls – PLOS ONE
BPA- Idiopathic Undescended testis ENDO 2013
BPA – Causes Prostate Cancer ENDO 2013
BPA + Chlorine stop cellular communication – Endocrine disruptors online journal

Prostate cancers are fewer, smaller on walnut-enriched diet

Contact: Will Sansom sansom@uthscsa.edu 210-567-2579 University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio

SAN ANTONIO (July 16, 2013) — New research from the School of Medicine at The University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio indicates that eating a modest amount of walnuts can protect against prostate cancer.

The study is described in the journal Cancer Investigation. Researchers at the UT Health Science Center injected immune-deficient mice with human prostate cancer cells. Within three to four weeks, tumors typically start to grow in a large number of these mice. The study asked whether a walnut-enriched diet versus a non-walnut diet would be associated with reduced cancer formation. A previous study found this to be true for breast cancer.

Results

Three of 16 mice (18 percent) eating the walnut-enriched diet developed prostate tumors, compared with 14 of 32 mice (44 percent) on the non-walnut control diet. Also of note, the final average tumor size in the walnut-fed animals was roughly one-fourth the average size of the prostate tumors that developed in the mice eating the control diet.

“We found the results to be stunning because there were so few tumors in animals consuming the walnuts and these tumors grew much more slowly than in the other animals,” said study senior author Russel Reiter, Ph.D., professor of cellular and structural biology at the Health Science Center. “We were absolutely surprised by how highly effective the walnut diet was in terms of inhibition of human prostate cancer.”

Percentage of diet

The mice consumed a diet typically used in animal studies, except with the addition of a small amount of walnuts pulverized into a fine powder to prevent the rodents from only eating the walnuts. “The walnut portion was not a large percentage of the diet,” Dr. Reiter said. “It was the equivalent to a human eating about 2 ounces, or two handfuls, a day, which is not a lot of walnuts.”

Study co-author W. Elaine Hardman, Ph.D., of the Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University, published a study in 2011 that showed fewer and smaller tumors among walnut-fed mice injected with human breast cancer cells. Dr. Hardman formerly was a faculty member at the Health Science Center.

“The data to date suggest that using walnuts on a regular basis in the diet may be beneficial to defer, prevent or delay some types of cancer, including breast and prostate,” Dr. Reiter said.

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The paper is at http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/07357907.2013.800095.

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Rebuttal to Omega 3 fatty acids being associated with advanced prostate cancer.

Quick Rebuttal to the widely reported media coverage on Omega -3 fatty acids related to advanced prostate cancer. Focus on possible experimenter bias, assumption and direct prejudice.” Plasma Phopholipid Fatty Acids and prostate cancer risk in the selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial” Counter analysis and case example of experimenter bias.

 

Neurotoxicity of chemotherapy drugs / triggers changes in ion channels on dorsal root ganglia and dorsal horn neurons

Contact: Meng Zhao eic@nrren.org 86-138-049-98773 Neural Regeneration Research

Chemotherapy is one of the primary treatments for cancer. However, one of the most disturbing findings of recent studies of cancer survivors is the apparent prevalence of chemotherapy-associated adverse neurological effects, including vascular complications, seizures, mood disorders, cognitive dysfunctions, and peripheral neuropathies. In addition, chemotherapy triggers changes in ion channels on dorsal root ganglia and dorsal horn neurons that generate secondary changes resulting in neuropathic pains. Although a number of protective agents have been developed, their effects are not satisfactory. Chemotherapy drugs can cause changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and plasticity. A review reported in the Neural Regeneration Research (Vol. 8, No. 17, 2013) focuses on chemotherapy-induced neurodegeneration and hippocampal dysfunctions and related mechanisms as measured by in vivo and in vitro approaches, which is helpful in determining how best to further explore the causal mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced neurological side effects and in providing direction for the future development of novel optimized chemotherapeutic agents.

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Article: “Neurotoxicity of cancer chemotherapy,” by Miyoung Yang1, 2, Changjong Moon1 (1 Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Medical Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Republic of Korea; 2 Department of Physiology and Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA)

Yang MY, Moon CJ. Neurotoxicity of cancer chemotherapy. Neural Regen Res. 2013;8(17):1606-1614.

Contact:

Meng Zhao eic@nrren.org 86-138-049-98773 Neural Regeneration Research http://www.nrronline.org/

Full text: http://www.sjzsyj.org:8080/Jweb_sjzs/CN/article/downloadArticleFile.do?attachType=PDF&id=629

Outdated practice of annual cervical-cancer screenings may cause more harm than good

 

Tuesday, July 09, 2013

For decades, women between the ages of 21 and 69 were advised to get annual screening exams for cervical cancer. In 2009, however, accumulating scientific evidence led major guideline groups to agree on a new recommendation that women be screened less frequently: every three years rather than annually.

Despite the revised guidelines, about half of the obstetrician-gynecologists surveyed in a recent study said they continue to provide annual exams – an outdated practice that may be more harmful than helpful, said Drs. Russell Harris and Stacey Sheridan of the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

“Screening is not the unqualified good that we have advertised it to be,” they wrote in an editorial titled, “The Times They (May Be) A-Changin’: Too Much Screening is a Health Problem.” The editorial accompanied a research study reviewing physician practices around cervical-cancer screening and vaccination for human papilloma virus (HPV), which has been linked to cervical cancer.

The study, “Physicians Slow to Implement HPV Vaccination and Cervical Screening Guidelines,” was published July 9 in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

“Screening for cervical cancer and other cancers such as breast and prostate, has clear potential for harms as well as benefits, and these must be carefully weighed before a rational decision about screening can be made,” wrote Harris and Sheridan, who are professor and assistant professor of medicine, respectively, at UNC’s School of Medicine. They also hold adjunct appointments at UNC’s Gillings School of Global Public Health.

The study noted physicians said they were comfortable with longer testing intervals, but were concerned their patients might not come in for annual check-ups if Pap tests, the screening test for cervical cancer, were not offered. The problem, Harris said, is that annual Pap tests produce more abnormal results leading to additional, invasive testing that itself bring risks.

“Many women have ‘abnormal’ [Pap test] findings that are not cancer, but may be a ‘cancer precursor.’ We know that the great majority of these abnormal findings would never progress to actual invasive cancer, yet these women are referred” for further, more invasive testing, Harris said.

One such test, called a “colposcopy,” [cohl-PAH-scoh-pee], involves examining the cervix for possibly cancerous lesions, followed frequently by a biopsy, i.e., taking a small sample of the lesion, which can cause pain and bleeding, as well as potential psychological harm. “The screening test itself can raise concern about dreaded cancer; a positive screening test heightens this worry; finding a cancer precursor, even one of uncertain importance, just increases worry further,” they wrote.

The authors recognize the important benefit of screening for cervical and other cancers, but “screening every three years [for cervical cancer] retains about 95 percent of the benefit of annual screening, but reduces harms by roughly two-thirds.” Less-frequent screening also reduces costs significantly in terms of patient and physician time and laboratory testing supplies and other resources.

The newest cervical-cancer and HPV screening recommendations were released in March 2012, too recent to have been included in the July 9 study. Women should still begin Pap tests at age 21 and every three years afterward, but women between the ages of 30 and 65 may choose to extend the Pap test interval to every five years, provided they also get an HPV test, according to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American Cancer Society, among others. However, the authors added, “the debate about a do-less approach to screening—for cervical cancer and other conditions as well—is ongoing.”

The editorial concluded: “Bob Dylan sang about changing times before they actually changed, yet his singing moved the public discussion in a positive direction. Our sense is that the right song for the current discussion is about helping people come to appreciate the harms screening does … and move us toward a better balance of benefits and harms.”

Note: Harris may be reached by via email at russell_harris@med.unc.edu

UNC News Services contact: Kathy Neal, interim health and science editor, kcneal@unc.edu or (919) 740-5673 (cell).

Exposure to BPA in developing prostate increases risk of later cancer

Contact: Sharon Parmet sparmet@uic.edu 312-413-2695 University of Illinois at Chicago

Ubiquitous plasticisers could have long term health effects

Early exposure to BPA (bisphenol A) – an additive commonly found in plastic water bottles and soup can liners – causes an increased cancer risk in an animal model of human prostate cancer, according to University of Illinois at Chicago researcher Gail Prins. Prins presented her findings at the ENDO 2013 meeting in San Francisco June 17.

“This is the first direct evidence that exposure to BPA during development, at the levels we see in our day-to-day environment, increases the risk for prostate cancer in human prostate tissue,” said Prins, professor of physiology and director of the andrology laboratory in urology at the UIC College of Medicine.

The increased risk can be traced to prostate stem and progenitor cells which become “sensitized” to estrogen early in development through exposure to BPA — which mimics estrogen in the body. Environmental exposure to compounds like BPA that mimic hormones has become common, said Prins. Prostate stem cells, which are very long-lived, pass on the increased estrogen sensitivity to the prostate tissues they produce throughout life. Because prostate cancer is fueled in part by naturally rising estrogen levels in aging men, the prostate tissue’s increased sensitivity to estrogen makes the development of cancer much more likely, according to Prins.

“Studies of expectant mothers in the U.S. showed that more than 95 percent of them had BPA in their urine, which means they recently ingested these compounds, ” says Prins, whose work led to banning the sale of baby bottles and cups containing BPA in Chicago in 2009. Previous studies by Prins and colleagues using rats showed that exposure to elevated estrogen or BPA during embryonic development increased the rate of prostate cancer later in life.  To determine if there was a link in humans, Prins developed a new animal model using human prostate stem cells implanted into mouse “hosts.”

Prins took human prostate stem cells from deceased young adult male organ donors and implanted the cells into mice, where they formed human prostate tissue. To mimic exposure to BPA during early prostate development, Prins fed the mice BPA for the first two weeks after the transplant, at doses in line with those seen in pregnant American women. The tissue was then allowed to mature for a month into a human prostate-like tissue.

Next, Prins exposed the mice to elevated estrogen levels for two to four months, to mimic the normal rise in estrogen seen in aging men. Signs of cancer developed in the human prostate tissue in a third of the mice fed BPA, as compared to only 12 percent in mice that had not been fed BPA. If the stem cells were exposed to BPA before implantation and again during development, 45 percent showed signs of cancer.

“We believe that BPA actually reprograms the stem cells to be more sensitive to estrogen throughout life, leading to a life-long increased susceptibility for diseases including cancer,” Prins says.

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W.Y. Hu, G.B. Shi, D.P. Hu, R.B. van Breeman and A. Kajdacsy-Balla, of UIC also contributed to the research. This research was funded by grants from the National Institute of Environmental Sciences RC2 ES01878 (ARRA Award) and R01 ES015584.

98% of Childhood cancer survivors have significant chronic disease

By Alexandra Sifferlin, TIME.com
updated 10:21 AM EDT, Wed June 12, 2013

 A new study shows childhood cancer survivors may be more likely to have chronic diseases.

STORY HIGHLIGHTS

    • A study shows a majority of childhood cancer survivors have chronic disease
    • The research involved regular check-ups of the cancer survivors
    • Diseases include new cancers, heart disease or abnormal lung function

(TIME.com) — A study of over 1,700 childhood cancer survivors found that 98% of the participants had at least one chronic disease such as new cancers, heart disease or abnormal lung function.

The research, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, presents a dismal picture of life after cancer.

Conducted by St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, it provides a glimpse into St. Jude’s LIFE program, a two- to three-day initiative that brings long-term childhood cancer survivors back to the hospital for regular check-ups throughout their adult lives.

The goal is to monitor adult survivors to better understand the mechanisms that promote survival. The former patients undergo various checks and screenings including basic health exams, blood tests and X-rays.

CNN Hero: Richard Nares

The authors report that by age 45, 80% of survivors have a life-threatening, disabling or serious health condition. Sixty-five percent of the survivor participants who were at risk for lung problems after their treatment had abnormal lung functions, and 61% of former patients at risk for neurocognitive issues had endocrine problems in areas of the brain like the hypothalamus. Another 56% of survivors had heart abnormalities, and 48% had memory difficulties.

TIME.com: Why the link between childhood cancer and CT scans may be overblown

“It is not surprising, but it helps quantify what our fears were in this population,” says study author Dr. Melissa Hudson, the director of the St. Jude Division of Cancer Survivorship. “We have known for many years that adults who were treated for cancer in childhood have a higher risk for health problems, and these health problems appear to increase as they age.”

The study population is one of the oldest groups of survivors to be studied. Participants ranged from 18 to 60 years old, though the average age was 33. Their average time from cancer diagnosis was 26 years, with a range from 11 to 48 years from diagnosis.

Previous studies looking at cancer survivors’ health have typically relied on surveys instead of actual check-ups in the doctor’s office.

“We know we are underestimating the amount of disease,” says Hudson. “This comprehensive study allows us to get down to what are the undiagnosed conditions that are hopefully in early stages so intervention will benefit them.”

The researchers say their findings support tailoring treatments to patients so that exposure to radiation from chemotherapy is kept to a minimum. Patients should have regular check-ups throughout their lives and maintain a healthy lifestyle in order to not exacerbate their risk.

“Physicians and health care providers should be advocating for healthier lifestyle practices for anyone they see in their practice, but it is particularly important for childhood cancer survivors because they have already had treatments when their organs were more vulnerable that put them at risk for types of diseases we see in aging populations like high blood pressure, osteoporosis, high cholesterol, etc.,” says Hudson.

Screening programs like the one at St. Jude’s not only identify health issues early in these at-risk patients, but also help doctors identify which screening processes are most helpful and aid in characterizing what patient profiles are at a higher risk for certain diseases.

“Our greatest findings were that these patients had diseases that were not identified,” says Hudson. “This type of care really understands their risk for disease in the context of their previous cancer history.”

http://www.cnn.com/2013/06/12/health/childhood-cancer-disease/index.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+rss%2Fcnn_health+%28RSS%3A+Health%29&utm_content=Google+Reader

Young people who undergo CT scans are 24 percent more likely to develop cancer compared with those who do not, a study published today on bmj.com suggests

Contact: Emma Dickinson edickinson@bmj.com 44-020-738-36529 BMJ-British Medical Journal

Small cancer risk following CT scans in childhood and adolescence confirmed

But the absolute excess for all cancers combined is low

The researchers say that in a group of 10,000 young people, they would expect 39 cancers to occur during the next 10 years, but if they all had one CT scan, up to six extra cancers would occur.

CT (computed tomography) scans have great medical benefits, but their increasing use since the 1980s has raised some concerns about possible cancer risks, particularly following exposures in childhood. Most previous studies have estimated risks indirectly, and some radiation experts have questioned the validity of these estimates.

There is currently much uncertainty and as such, researchers from Australia and Europe carried out a study comparing cancer rates in patients exposed to CT scans at ages 0-19 years compared with unexposed persons of a similar age. All participants were born between 1985 and 2005 with total follow-up ending at the end of 2007. This is the largest ever population-based study of medical radiation exposure.

Data were taken from Australian Medicare records and from national cancer records. The main outcome of the research was to identify cancer rates in individuals exposed to a CT scan more than one year before any cancer diagnosis. Mean length of follow-up was 9.5 years for the exposed group and 17.3 for the unexposed group.

The cohort included 10.9 million people, 680,211 of whom were CT-exposed at least 12 months before any cancer diagnosis. 18% of these had more than one scan.

By the end of 2007, 3150 of the exposed group and 57,524 of the unexposed group had been diagnosed with cancer. The incidence rate was 24% greater in the exposed group after adjusting for age, sex and year of birth. Risk increased by 16% for each additional CT scan.

For brain cancer, although the incidence in the exposed group declined with time since first CT-exposure, brain cancer incidence was still significantly increased more than 15 years after first exposure. For other solid cancers (tumours as opposed to cancers of the blood or bone marrow) the absolute excess cancer incidence increased significantly with time since first exposure.

For all cancers combined, although the proportional increase declined with years since first CT scan, it was still increased at 15+ years after first exposure.

For brain cancer, the highest risk was seen in children exposed before the age of five years and this risk decreased with increasing age at first exposure. However, despite this decrease, risk for all cancers combined remained significantly increased in the oldest age at exposure group (15-19 years).

For solid cancers other than brain cancer, the proportional increase in risk was somewhat greater in females: 23% compared with 14% in males.

The researchers say that almost 60% of CT scans were of the brain and recognise that “in some cases the brain cancer may have led to the scan rather than vice versa”. They add that they “cannot assume that all the excess cancers […] were caused by CT scans” and they “cannot rule out the possibility of some reverse causation, particularly for some cases of brain cancer”.

Nevertheless, they conclude that the “increased incidence of many different types of cancer […] is mostly due to irradiation”. They point out that because the cancer excess was still continuing at the end of follow-up, the “eventual lifetime risk from CT scans cannot yet be determined”. They recommend that practitioners will need to weigh the benefits against the potential risks to justify each CT scan decision.

In an accompanying editorial, Dr Sodickson from Harvard Medical School says it is important to recognise that the incidence of cancer in children is extremely small and so “a 24% increase makes this risk just slightly less small”. He says that there are many methods to manage radiation dose and with further validation of risk models, “more accurate risk assessment “can be performed to “better inform imaging decisions”.

Angelina Jolie gene flaw: British businessman makes medical history after having healthy prostate removed

Earlier this week, Oscar-winning actress Angelina Jolie revealed that she’d had a double mastectomy after discovering she carried the BRCA 1 gene

Liam O’Brien

Sunday, 19 May 2013

A British businessman has made medical history by having his healthy prostate removed after testing positive for a “faulty” gene that increases his risk of developing cancer.

The 53-year-old Londoner, who had family members who suffered breast or prostate cancer, found out he had the BRCA 2 gene after taking part in a trial at the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR).

Earlier this week, Oscar-winning actress Angelina Jolie revealed that she’d had a double mastectomy after discovering she carried the BRCA 1 gene.

Doctors had estimated that the mother-of-six had an 87 per cent risk of breast cancer and a 50 per cent risk of ovarian cancer.

Surgeons would normally advise against removing a healthy man’s prostate, as aside from leaving the man infertile it can result in incontinence. But after a tissue sample showed microscopic malignant changes, they pressed ahead with the historic operation.

Surgeon Roger Kirby told the Sunday Times that the presence of the BRCA 2 gene justified removing the prostate in this man’s case.

“The  relatively low level of cancerous cells we found in this man’s prostate before the operation would these days not normally prompt immediate surgery to remove the gland, but given what we do know about the nature of BRCA2, it was definitely the right thing to do for this patient,” he said.

Mr Kirby added that the patient is now “absolutely fine”, adding: “I am sure more male BRCA carriers will now follow suit.”

Results from ICR trials on almost 2,000 men showed that men who carry the BRCA 2 gene are at 8.6 times greater risk of developing prostate cancer than non-carriers.

Prostate cancer affects one in eight men in the UK, with 10,000 deaths each year.

 

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/angelina-jolie-gene-flaw-british-businessman-makes-medical-history-after-having-healthy-prostate-removed-8622617.html#

Virus kills melanoma in animal model, spares normal cells

Contact: Jim Sliwa jsliwa@asmusa.org 202-942-9297 American Society for Microbiology

Researchers from Yale University School of Medicine have demonstrated that vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is highly competent at finding, infecting, and killing  human melanoma cells, both in vitro and in animal models, while having little propensity to infect non-cancerous cells.

“If it works as well in humans, this could confer a substantial benefit on patients afflicted with this deadly disease,” says Anthony van den Pol, a researcher on the study. The research was published online ahead of print in the Journal of Virology.

Most normal cells resist virus infection by activating antiviral processes that protect nearby cells. “The working hypothesis was that since many cancer cells show a deficient ability to withstand virus infection, maybe a fast-acting virus such as VSV would be able to infect and kill cancer cells before the virus was eliminated by the immune system,” says van den Pol. And indeed, the virus was able to selectively infect multiple deadly human melanomas that had been implanted in a mouse model, yet showed little infectivity towards normal mouse cells, he says.

Many different mechanisms are involved in innate immunity, the type of immunity that combats viral infection. van den Pol plans to investigate which specific mechanisms are malfunctioning in cancer cells, knowledge that would be hugely beneficial both in understanding how cancer affects immunity, and in enhancing a virus’ ability to target cancer cells, he says.

Melanoma is the most deadly skin cancer. Most melanomas are incurable once they have metastasized into the body. The incidence of melanoma has tripled over the last three decades, and it accounts for approximately 75 percent of skin cancer-related deaths.

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A copy of the manuscript can be found online at http://bit.ly/asmtip0413b.  Formal publication is scheduled for the June 2013 issue of the Journal of Virology.

(G. Wollmann, J.N. Davis, M.W. Bosenberg, and A.N. van den Pol, 2013. Vesicular stomatitis virus variants selectively infect and kill human melanomas but not normal melanocytes. J. Virol.  Published ahead of print 3 April 2013 , doi:10.1128/JVI.03311-12)

Journal of Virology is a publication of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM).  The ASM is the largest single life science society, composed of over 39,000 scientists and health professionals. Its mission is to advance the microbiological sciences as a vehicle for understanding life processes and to apply and communicate this knowledge for the improvement of health and environmental and economic well-being worldwide.

Mammogram rate did not decline after controversial USPSTF recommendations

Contact: Tom Langford tlangford@partners.org 617-534-1605 Brigham and Women’s Hospital

In 2009, the United States Preventative Services Task Force recommended against annual mammograms for women between the ages of 40 and 49

Boston – More than three years after the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended against routine mammogram screening for women between the ages of 40 and 49, a study from Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) finds that mammogram rates in the United States have not declined in that age group, or any other.  The study results are published in the April 19, 2013 online edition of the journal Cancer.

“If the USPSTF recommendations had been widely adopted, we would have expected to see a significant decline in mammography rates among women in their forties,” said the study’s lead author, Lydia Pace, MD, MPH, a global women’s health fellow in the Division of Women’s Health at BWH. “However, this study demonstrates that younger women are continuing to get mammograms.”

Researchers analyzed data from nearly 28,000 women who were asked about their mammography use during the 2005, 2008 and 2011 National Health Interview Survey.  They found that among all women, mammography rates rose at a slight but statistically non-significant rate between 2008 and 2011 from 51.9 percent to 53.6 percent.  Among women in the 40 to 49 age group, mammography rates also rose at a slight but statistically non-significant rate between 2008 and 2011 from 46.1 percent to 47.5 percent.

“Our research does not explain the reasons why mammography rates did not decline, but it is worth noting that several prominent professional and advocacy organizations continue to recommend mammography screening for women between the ages of 40 and 49,” said Dr. Pace. “Providers may disagree with the USPSTF recommendations or they may not have the time or the tools needed for discussions with patients about the relative benefits and harms of mammography. Patients may also disagree with the recommendations and may still be requesting annual mammograms or self-referring to mammography facilities.”

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This research was supported by the Global Women’s Health Fellowship at the Connors Center for Women’s Health and Gender Biology at Brigham and Women’s Hospital.

High-salt diet and ulcer bug combine to increase risk of cancer : ” Every animal on the high salt diet developed cancer “

Contact: Jim Sliwa jsliwa@asmusa.org 202-942-9297 American Society for Microbiology

Numerous epidemiologic studies have shown that a diet high in salt is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. Now Timothy L. Cover and colleagues of Vanderbilt University show that high dietary salt combined with infection by the ulcer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori greatly increases the risk of cancer.  The study was published ahead of print in the journal Infection and Immunity.

In the study, the researchers infected Mongolian gerbils with H. pylori. One set of gerbils received a regular diet; the other, a high salt diet. At the end of the experiment the researchers analyzed the animals’ stomach tissues. Every animal on the high salt diet developed cancer, compared with just 58 percent of those on the regular diet.

It appears development of gastric cancer required the presence of a particular bacterial oncoprotein, known as CagA, which is produced by H. pylori. Gastric cancer did not develop in animals on the high salt diet that were infected with a mutant H. pylori which did not produce CagA. In earlier studies, Cover and others had shown that culturing H. pylori in a high salt environment boosts production of CagA. “This was one of the driving forces that led us to undertake the current studies,” says Cover.

The investigators note that while no studies, to their knowledge, have examined relationships among a high salt diet, and infection with H. pylori expressing cagA, “in several parts of the world that have high rates of gastric cancer, there is a high prevalence of cagA+ strains and a large proportion of the population consumes a high-salt diet.”

The investigators also detected significantly higher levels of gastric inflammation in H. pylori-infected gerbils on a high salt diet than in those on a regular diet, a finding which Cover says is relevant to many types of cancer. They also showed that transcription of various inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 1-beta, are elevated in the former as compared to the latter, suggesting that “these factors may contribute to the increased inflammation and increased gastric risk that accompany a high salt diet,” says Cover.

At least 50 percent of humans are infected with H. pylori, at least 90 percent of them without symptoms.

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A copy of the manuscript can be found online at http://bit.ly/asmtip0413a.  Formal publication is scheduled for the June 2013 issue of Infection and Immunity.

(J.A. Gaddy, J.N. Radin, J.T. Loh, F. Zhang, M.K. Washington, R.M. Peek, Jr., H.M.S. Algood, and T.L. Cover, 2013. High dietary salt intake exacerbates Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis. Infect. Immun.  Publish ahead of print 8 April 2013 , doi:10.1128/IAI.01271-12.)

Infection and Immunity is a publication of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM).  The ASM is the largest single life science society, composed of over 39,000 scientists and health professionals. Its mission is to advance the microbiological sciences as a vehicle for understanding life processes and to apply and communicate this knowledge for the improvement of health and environmental and economic well-being worldwide.

Arrhythmia drug may increase cancer risk ( Up to 46% after 2.5 years )

Contact: Amy Molnar sciencenewsroom@wiley.com Wiley

One of the most widely used medications to treat arrhythmias may increase the risk of developing cancer, especially in men and people exposed to high amounts of the drug. That is the conclusion of a new retrospective study published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society. The study’s results indicate that a potential link between amiodarone and cancer warrants further investigation.

Amiodarone was approved in 1985 for the treatment of arrhythmias, or irregular heartbeats. Because the drug is fat-soluble and degrades very slowly, large amounts can accumulate in soft tissues after a long-term prescription. Previous studies have shown that amiodarone might increase the risk of certain cancers, but no large-scale study has looked at the issue.

To investigate, Vincent Yi-Fong Su, MD, of the Taipei Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan, and his colleagues studied 6,418 individuals taking the drug, following them for an average of 2.57 years. A total of 280 participants developed cancer.

Patients who were male or who received high cumulative daily doses of amiodarone within the first year had an increased risk of developing cancer. Those with both factors were 46 percent more likely to develop cancer than those with neither factor. After taking age, sex, and illnesses into account, individuals taking a high amount of amiodarone had nearly twice the risk of developing cancer as those taking a low amount of the drug.

“We suggest that cancer events should be routinely reported in future amiodarone trials, and further observational research is necessary,” said Dr. Su. “Also, when prescribing amiodarone, doctors need to keep in mind that this medication may increase cancer risk.”

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URL Upon publication: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/cncr.27881