Bone, not adrenaline, drives fight or flight response

Bone, not adrenaline, drives fight or flight response

Bone, not adrenaline, drives fight or flight response

A new study from Columbia researchers suggests that bony vertebrates can’t muster this response to danger without the skeleton. The researchers found in mice and humans that almost immediately after the brain recognizes danger, it instructs the skeleton to flood the bloodstream with the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin, which is needed to turn on the fight or flight response

Julian Meyer Berger, Parminder Singh, Lori Khrimian, Donald A. Morgan, Subrata Chowdhury, Emilio Arteaga-Solis, Tamas L. Horvath, Ana I. Domingos, Anna L. Marsland, Vijay Kumal Yadav, Kamal Rahmouni, Xiao-Bing Gao, Gerard Karsenty. Mediation of the Acute Stress Response by the Skeleton. Cell Metabolism, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.08.012

#osteocalcin #stress #asr

Mouthwash use could inhibit benefits of exercise

Mouthwash use could inhibit benefits of exercise

These results show that the blood pressure-lowering effect of exercise was diminished by more than 60% over the first hour of recovery, and totally abolished two hours after exercise when participants were given the antibacterial mouthwash.

C. Cutler, M. Kiernan, J.R. Willis, L. Gallardo-Alfaro, P. Casas-Agustench, D. White, M. Hickson, T. Gabaldon, R. Bescos. Post-exercise hypotension and skeletal muscle oxygenation is regulated by nitrate-reducing activity of oral bacteria. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 2019; 143: 252 DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2019.07.035

#bacteria #nitricoxide #exercise

Performance-enhancing bacteria may increase performance by 13%

Performance-enhancing bacteria may increase performance by 13%

They pinpointed one specific group of bacteria, called Veillonella, that they found was enriched in the gut microbiome of Boston Marathon runners after after completing the 26.2 race and in an independent group of 87 elite and Olympic athletes after competitions. Veillonella bacteria isolated from marathon athletes and given to mice increased the animals’ performances in laboratory treadmill tests by 13% compared to control bacteria.

Jonathan Scheiman, Jacob M. Luber, Theodore A. Chavkin, Tara MacDonald, Angela Tung, Loc-Duyen Pham, Marsha C. Wibowo, Renee C. Wurth, Sukanya Punthambaker, Braden T. Tierney, Zhen Yang, Mohammad W. Hattab, Julian Avila-Pacheco, Clary B. Clish, Sarah Lessard, George M. Church, Aleksandar D. Kostic. Meta-omics analysis of elite athletes identifies a performance-enhancing microbe that functions via lactate metabolism. Nature Medicine, 2019; DOI: 10.1038/s41591-019-0485-4

How much exercise is needed to help improve thinking skills?

How much exercise is needed to help improve thinking skills?

The review included 98 randomized, controlled trials with a total of 11,061 participants with an average age of 73. Of the total participants, 59 percent were categorized as healthy adults, 26 percent had mild cognitive impairment and 15 percent had dementia. A total of 58 percent did not regularly exercise before being enrolled in a study.

Exercise for cognitive brain health in aging Joyce Gomes-Osman, Danylo F. Cabral, Timothy P. Morris, Katalina McInerney, Lawrence P. Cahalin, Tatjana Rundek, Augusto Oliveira, Alvaro Pascual-Leone Neurology: Clinical Practice May 2018, 10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000460; DOI:10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000460

Protein Supplements With Meals, better for weight control?

Protein Supplements With Meals, better for weight control?


A new systematic review of available evidence indicates that consuming protein supplements with meals may be more effective at promoting weight control than consuming supplements between meals in adults following a resistance training regimen.

Citation: Joshua L Hudson, Robert E Bergia, Wayne W Campbell. Effects of protein supplements consumed with meals, versus between meals, on resistance training–induced body composition changes in adults: a systematic review. Nutrition Reviews, 2018; DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuy012

Exercise can reverse damage from Heart aging

Exercise can reverse damage from Heart aging

Researchers through clinical research developed an exercise program that reverses heart damage from aging up to 25% in just two years.

Reversing the Cardiac Effects of Sedentary Aging in Middle Age—A Randomized Controlled Trial: Implications For Heart Failure Prevention. Circulation, 2018; CIRCULATIONAHA.117.030617 DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.030617