Vitamin E in front line of prostate cancer fight

Public release date: 18-Oct-2010 – EEV- Reposted at request from the HRR site

– Survival rates of the world’s most common cancer might soon be increased with a new vitamin E treatment which could significantly reduce tumour regrowth.

– “Previous clinical trials using another vitamin E constituent to inhibit prostate cancer development were unsuccessful, but these trials did not use the vitamin E constituent γ-T3,” he said.

–  in animal trials, γ-T3 completely inhibited tumour formation in more than 70 per cent of the mice implanted with prostate cancer cells and fed the vitamin E constituent in water. In the remaining cases, tumour regrowth was considerably reduced, while tumours reformed in 100 per cent of the control group.

Chemical structure of tocotrienols. α: R 1 = R...
Chemical structure of tocotrienols. α: R 1 = R 2 = R 3 = CH 3 ; β: R 1 = R 3 = CH 3 , R 2 = H; γ: R 1 = H, R 2 = R 3 = CH 3 ; δ: R 1 = R 2 = H, R 3 = CH 3 . (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

– existing chemotherapy and hormonal therapy treatment of prostate cancer was insufficient because it failed to kill off the prostate cancer stem cells

– the research team have discovered a particular form of T3, called gamma-tocotrienol (γ-T3), can successfully kill off the prostate cancer CSCs Continue reading “Vitamin E in front line of prostate cancer fight”

‘Prostate cancer test has been misused for money’ Claims Pathologist Richard Ablin who discovered the PSA antigen 40 years ago

"Many men get treated unnecessarily – and risk life-altering side effects including impotence and incontinence"

“Many men get treated unnecessarily – and risk life-altering side effects including impotence and incontinence”

Pathologist Richard Ablin discovered the PSA antigen 40 years ago. He says it should never have been used as a cancer screening tool for all men

Your book condemns the use of PSA for cancer screening. What do you hope to accomplish? I hope to expose how the urology community and drug industry misused the PSA test, putting money over the best interests of patients. I also want to show how the US Food and Drug Administration failed in its duty to the public: its advisers warned that routine PSA screening would cause a public health disaster, but it was approved under pressure from advocacy groups and drug companies. Continue reading “‘Prostate cancer test has been misused for money’ Claims Pathologist Richard Ablin who discovered the PSA antigen 40 years ago”

BPA increases risk of cancer in human prostate tissue

PUBLIC RELEASE DATE:
7-Jan-2014

– Our research provides the first direct evidence that exposure to BPA during development, at the levels we see in our day-to-day lives, increases the risk for prostate cancer in human prostate tissue

 – “We believe that BPA actually reprograms the stem cells to be more sensitive to estrogen throughout life, leading to a life-long increased susceptibility to diseases including cancer,”

Fetal exposure to a commonly used plasticizer found in products such as water bottles, soup can liners and paper receipts, can increase the risk for prostate cancer later in life, according to a study from the University of Illinois at Chicago published Jan. 7 online in the journal Endocrinology. Continue reading “BPA increases risk of cancer in human prostate tissue”

165th Health Research Report 5 OCT 2015 ( Synopsis)

ScreenHunter_42 Dec. 31 12.07           

Health Research Report

165th Issue Date 5 OCT 2013

Compiled By Ralph Turchiano

FOUND AT :

 

www.healthresearchreport.me 

In This Issue:

1.    Melatonin helps control weight gain as it stimulates the appearance of ‘beige fat’

2.    Folic acid deficiency can affect the health of great, great grandchildren

3.    Mouse studies reveal promising vitamin D-based treatment for MS

4.    Organized screening for prostate cancer does more harm than good

5.    Niacin, the fountain of youth

6.    Red wine chemical remains effective against cancer after the body converts it

7.    Component of citrus fruits found to block the formation of kidney cysts

Organized screening for prostate cancer does more harm than good

Contact: Kay Roche kay@rochewriting.com ECCO-the European CanCer Organisation

Prostate cancer screening using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is widely used in France despite a lack of evidence showing that it reduces cancer deaths. Now, researchers have shown that men experience more harm than good from routine PSA screening, according to research to be presented on Monday by Professor Mathieu Boniol, at the 2013 European Cancer Congress (ECC2013) [1].

Prof Boniol, Research Director at the International Prevention Research Institute (iPRI) and Professor at the Strathclyde Institute for Global Public Health at iPRI, Lyon, France, will tell the congress that the total harm men experience in terms of impotence and incontinence, and the side-effects from prostate cancer treatments, severely affects their quality of life, and should further discourage the use of PSA testing for prostate cancer screening.

Prof Boniol will say: “The test measures PSA protein levels, which are produced by the prostate gland, in a man’s blood, and may help detect early cancer. However, we believe that PSA testing should be used as an additional aid in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer rather than as the major entry point for prostate biopsy and further examinations. PSA testing should be reduced and more attention should be given to the harmful effects of screening related to the use of the test.

“We wanted to provide clinicians with a better idea of the consequences of organised PSA screening and we thought that providing numbers for the different side-effects following PSA testing would be easiest to interpret. Therefore, we estimated the total harm that men could endure if exposed to PSA testing by applying different side-effect estimates to a virtual population of 1,000 men aged 55󈞱 years. We also included a group of 1,000 men who were not screened for prostate cancer for comparison,” he says.

“We estimated the total harm that men should endure if exposed to PSA testing by applying different side-effect estimates to a virtual population of 1,000 men aged 55-69 years. We also included a group of 1,000 men who were not screened for prostate cancer for comparison.”

Using data from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC), which was the only trial to show that PSA testing was associated with a significant reduction in prostate cancer deaths, information on the number of men needed to undergo a prostate biopsy and the number of prostate cancer cases diagnosed was extracted. These data were combined with other published data on side-effects associated with biopsy and with the surgery used to remove prostate tumours.

“Overall, the death rates due to prostate cancer were in the same order of magnitude between the two groups of men: we estimated that 5.17 deaths due to prostate cancer would occur in the group of unscreened men compared to 4.1 deaths in the group who underwent PSA screening.

“Yet in order to prevent one death from prostate cancer in the 1,000 men screened for PSA, the number of biopsies would double with 154 additional prostate biopsies, and, of 35 additional prostate cancers diagnosed, 12 additional cases of impotence and three additional cases of incontinence would occur. Thus, the harm from routine PSA testing can have a serious effect on the quality of life of patients and provides additional evidence against the use of organised screening for prostate cancer,” he says.

Currently, the PSA test is used widely throughout Europe for prostate cancer screening, although there in insufficient evidence to support its utility and there is no organised, population-based prostate cancer screening programme. According to European Union Cancer Database (EUCAN) estimates, over 73,600 new cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed in France in 2012 and around 8,600 men died from the disease [2].

“Approximately 75% of men aged 60 in France have had a PSA test done within the previous three years and despite no national recommendation to promote PSA testing, nor any national organisation, it may partly explain the reported high incidence rates of prostate cancer throughout France,” Prof Boniol says.

“All available evidence suggests that PSA testing for prostate cancer should not be routinely recommended for asymptomatic men in Europe. When discussing the use of the PSA test with patients, physicians should make them aware of the limitations of the test and the likelihood of it causing harm. We hope that our research findings will help clinicians to make decisions as to when to propose a PSA test, and to help the patient to decide whether or not to accept this recommendation,” he will say.

Prof Boniol will also present results from research investigating the harm associated with prostate cancer surgery, in which investigators found that in France the risk of dying 60 days after an operation tripled in men aged 70 years or older.

Removal of the entire prostate gland is the surgical procedure used to treat prostate cancer and it is called a radical prostatectomy. It can be performed by open (laparotomy) or keyhole (laparoscopic) surgery. The procedure is associated with a risk of dying after the surgery. However, the degree of increased risk is unknown and Prof Boniol says it needs to be considered when evaluating the harm linked with prostate cancer treatment.

Records for men aged over 40 who had undergone a radical prostatectomy between 2007 and 2011 were retrieved from the French Technical Agency for Information on Hospitalization database. A total of 120,333 prostate cancer surgeries were performed among the 637 hospitals included in the database, of which 68,106 were open surgery and 52,227 were keyhole surgery.

The researchers found that a high percentage of prostate cancer surgery (18%) was performed in men older than 70. They also found that 60 days after prostate cancer surgery there were 183 deaths (0.15%). The risk of dying was 0.11% for men aged 40󈞱 years and increased to 0.36% for men aged 70 years or older, 60 days post surgery.

Prof Boniol will say: “We found that a high number of prostate cancer surgical procedures were performed on older men, over 70 years of age, a group of individuals where surgery should be viewed with extreme caution as the potential to provide a few additional years of life is also associated with a very high risk of premature death. In this group of men, the risk of dying following radical prostatectomy was much higher than with younger men.

“The results of this research also question the use of prostate cancer surgery. One of the main problems with using PSA testing for prostate cancer screening is over-diagnosis. An over-diagnosed prostate cancer patient is labelled as a prostate cancer case, but he will never suffer from the disease although he will experience the potential side-effects of prostate cancer treatment. Our findings show that elderly men are over-treated for prostate cancer, and that, for them, surgery is unlikely to provide any benefit.

“We hope that expert committees evaluating new clinical guidelines for the management of prostate cancer will request that the benefits and harm of prostate cancer surgery be assessed, especially in relation to the use of PSA testing.”

President of ECCO, Professor Cornelis van de Velde, commented: “Screening for prostate cancer is controversial and recommendations exist against PSA-based screening. Despite this, it is widely used especially in France. This national study indicates that it causes more harm than good, especially in men aged 70 or older who have triple the risk of younger men of dying after the operation. These results should lead to stricter guidelines and registries to evaluate the over-treatment of prostate cancer.”

Co-scientific chair of ECC2013 and ESMO spokesperson, Professor Cora Sternberg, commented: “PSA screening holds the promise of early diagnosis when cancer is localised to the prostate and treatment is curative. Screening has, however, also led to many false positive results, over-diagnosis of disease and significant morbidity as demonstrated in this French study, particularly in men over 70 years of age.

“International recommendations vary on the value of routine PSA screening. The European Association of Urology says that current evidence is insufficient to recommend the adoption of population screening for prostate cancer as a public health policy due to the large overtreatment effect. The American Urological Association suggests that for men aged 55 to 69 years, PSA screening involves weighing the benefits of preventing prostate cancer mortality in one man for every 1,000 men screened over a decade against the known potential harms associated with screening and treatment. Men are urged to talk with their doctors about benefits and harms of testing. Along the lines of this French study, the American Cancer Society also suggests discussion with the physician regarding the benefits and hazards of early detection.” [3]

###

[1] The 2013 European Cancer Congress is the 17th congress of the European CanCer Organisation (ECCO), the 38th congress of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the 32nd congress of European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO).

[2] European Journal of Cancer, Vol 49, issue 6 (April 2013), pages 1374-403.”Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: estimates for 40 countries in 2012.” Available from: http://eco.iarc.fr. Accessed on 01 July 2013.

[3] Professor Sternberg is Chief of the Department of Medical Oncology, San Camillo and Forlanini Hospitals, Rome, Italy.

[4] The work was funded by the International Prevention Research Institute, Lyon, France.

163rd Health Research Report Synopsis 07 SEP 2013

 

Health Research Report

163rd Issue Date 7 SEP 2013

Compiled By Ralph Turchiano

www.healthresearchreport.me 

In this issue:

  1. Four or more cups of coffee a day may keep prostate cancer recurrence and progression away
  2. Broccoli could be key in the fight against osteoarthritis
  3. Potential diagnostic marker for zinc status offers insights into the effects of zinc deficiency
  4. Doubling the daily allowance of protein intake with diet and exercise protects muscle loss
  5. Oral nutritional supplements demonstrate significant health and cost benefits
  6. 1 in 4 has alarmingly few intestinal bacteria
  7. Aging really is ‘in your head’
  8. Exercise may reduce the risk of epilepsy later in life for men
  9. Antioxidant effect of resveratrol in the treatment of vascular dementia

Prostate cancers are fewer, smaller on walnut-enriched diet

Contact: Will Sansom sansom@uthscsa.edu 210-567-2579 University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio

SAN ANTONIO (July 16, 2013) — New research from the School of Medicine at The University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio indicates that eating a modest amount of walnuts can protect against prostate cancer.

The study is described in the journal Cancer Investigation. Researchers at the UT Health Science Center injected immune-deficient mice with human prostate cancer cells. Within three to four weeks, tumors typically start to grow in a large number of these mice. The study asked whether a walnut-enriched diet versus a non-walnut diet would be associated with reduced cancer formation. A previous study found this to be true for breast cancer.

Results

Three of 16 mice (18 percent) eating the walnut-enriched diet developed prostate tumors, compared with 14 of 32 mice (44 percent) on the non-walnut control diet. Also of note, the final average tumor size in the walnut-fed animals was roughly one-fourth the average size of the prostate tumors that developed in the mice eating the control diet.

“We found the results to be stunning because there were so few tumors in animals consuming the walnuts and these tumors grew much more slowly than in the other animals,” said study senior author Russel Reiter, Ph.D., professor of cellular and structural biology at the Health Science Center. “We were absolutely surprised by how highly effective the walnut diet was in terms of inhibition of human prostate cancer.”

Percentage of diet

The mice consumed a diet typically used in animal studies, except with the addition of a small amount of walnuts pulverized into a fine powder to prevent the rodents from only eating the walnuts. “The walnut portion was not a large percentage of the diet,” Dr. Reiter said. “It was the equivalent to a human eating about 2 ounces, or two handfuls, a day, which is not a lot of walnuts.”

Study co-author W. Elaine Hardman, Ph.D., of the Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University, published a study in 2011 that showed fewer and smaller tumors among walnut-fed mice injected with human breast cancer cells. Dr. Hardman formerly was a faculty member at the Health Science Center.

“The data to date suggest that using walnuts on a regular basis in the diet may be beneficial to defer, prevent or delay some types of cancer, including breast and prostate,” Dr. Reiter said.

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The paper is at http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/07357907.2013.800095.

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About the UT Health Science Center San Antonio

The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, one of the country’s leading health sciences universities, ranks in the top 3 percent of all institutions worldwide receiving National Institutes of Health funding. The university’s schools of medicine, nursing, dentistry, health professions and graduate biomedical sciences have produced approximately 28,000 graduates. The $736 million operating budget supports eight campuses in San Antonio, Laredo, Harlingen and Edinburg. For more information on the many ways “We make lives better®,” visit http://www.uthscsa.edu.

Rebuttal to Omega 3 fatty acids being associated with advanced prostate cancer.

Quick Rebuttal to the widely reported media coverage on Omega -3 fatty acids related to advanced prostate cancer. Focus on possible experimenter bias, assumption and direct prejudice.” Plasma Phopholipid Fatty Acids and prostate cancer risk in the selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial” Counter analysis and case example of experimenter bias.

 

Exposure to BPA in developing prostate increases risk of later cancer

Contact: Sharon Parmet sparmet@uic.edu 312-413-2695 University of Illinois at Chicago

Ubiquitous plasticisers could have long term health effects

Early exposure to BPA (bisphenol A) – an additive commonly found in plastic water bottles and soup can liners – causes an increased cancer risk in an animal model of human prostate cancer, according to University of Illinois at Chicago researcher Gail Prins. Prins presented her findings at the ENDO 2013 meeting in San Francisco June 17.

“This is the first direct evidence that exposure to BPA during development, at the levels we see in our day-to-day environment, increases the risk for prostate cancer in human prostate tissue,” said Prins, professor of physiology and director of the andrology laboratory in urology at the UIC College of Medicine.

The increased risk can be traced to prostate stem and progenitor cells which become “sensitized” to estrogen early in development through exposure to BPA — which mimics estrogen in the body. Environmental exposure to compounds like BPA that mimic hormones has become common, said Prins. Prostate stem cells, which are very long-lived, pass on the increased estrogen sensitivity to the prostate tissues they produce throughout life. Because prostate cancer is fueled in part by naturally rising estrogen levels in aging men, the prostate tissue’s increased sensitivity to estrogen makes the development of cancer much more likely, according to Prins.

“Studies of expectant mothers in the U.S. showed that more than 95 percent of them had BPA in their urine, which means they recently ingested these compounds, ” says Prins, whose work led to banning the sale of baby bottles and cups containing BPA in Chicago in 2009. Previous studies by Prins and colleagues using rats showed that exposure to elevated estrogen or BPA during embryonic development increased the rate of prostate cancer later in life.  To determine if there was a link in humans, Prins developed a new animal model using human prostate stem cells implanted into mouse “hosts.”

Prins took human prostate stem cells from deceased young adult male organ donors and implanted the cells into mice, where they formed human prostate tissue. To mimic exposure to BPA during early prostate development, Prins fed the mice BPA for the first two weeks after the transplant, at doses in line with those seen in pregnant American women. The tissue was then allowed to mature for a month into a human prostate-like tissue.

Next, Prins exposed the mice to elevated estrogen levels for two to four months, to mimic the normal rise in estrogen seen in aging men. Signs of cancer developed in the human prostate tissue in a third of the mice fed BPA, as compared to only 12 percent in mice that had not been fed BPA. If the stem cells were exposed to BPA before implantation and again during development, 45 percent showed signs of cancer.

“We believe that BPA actually reprograms the stem cells to be more sensitive to estrogen throughout life, leading to a life-long increased susceptibility for diseases including cancer,” Prins says.

###

W.Y. Hu, G.B. Shi, D.P. Hu, R.B. van Breeman and A. Kajdacsy-Balla, of UIC also contributed to the research. This research was funded by grants from the National Institute of Environmental Sciences RC2 ES01878 (ARRA Award) and R01 ES015584.

Angelina Jolie gene flaw: British businessman makes medical history after having healthy prostate removed

Earlier this week, Oscar-winning actress Angelina Jolie revealed that she’d had a double mastectomy after discovering she carried the BRCA 1 gene

Liam O’Brien

Sunday, 19 May 2013

A British businessman has made medical history by having his healthy prostate removed after testing positive for a “faulty” gene that increases his risk of developing cancer.

The 53-year-old Londoner, who had family members who suffered breast or prostate cancer, found out he had the BRCA 2 gene after taking part in a trial at the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR).

Earlier this week, Oscar-winning actress Angelina Jolie revealed that she’d had a double mastectomy after discovering she carried the BRCA 1 gene.

Doctors had estimated that the mother-of-six had an 87 per cent risk of breast cancer and a 50 per cent risk of ovarian cancer.

Surgeons would normally advise against removing a healthy man’s prostate, as aside from leaving the man infertile it can result in incontinence. But after a tissue sample showed microscopic malignant changes, they pressed ahead with the historic operation.

Surgeon Roger Kirby told the Sunday Times that the presence of the BRCA 2 gene justified removing the prostate in this man’s case.

“The  relatively low level of cancerous cells we found in this man’s prostate before the operation would these days not normally prompt immediate surgery to remove the gland, but given what we do know about the nature of BRCA2, it was definitely the right thing to do for this patient,” he said.

Mr Kirby added that the patient is now “absolutely fine”, adding: “I am sure more male BRCA carriers will now follow suit.”

Results from ICR trials on almost 2,000 men showed that men who carry the BRCA 2 gene are at 8.6 times greater risk of developing prostate cancer than non-carriers.

Prostate cancer affects one in eight men in the UK, with 10,000 deaths each year.

 

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/angelina-jolie-gene-flaw-british-businessman-makes-medical-history-after-having-healthy-prostate-removed-8622617.html#

High fiber diet prevents prostate cancer progression

 

By Garth Sundem in In the Lab · January 9, 2013 ·

 

Komal Raina, PhD, shows that prostate cancers in mice fed a high-fiber diet fail to progress.

A high-fiber diet may have the clinical potential to control the progression of prostate cancer in patients diagnosed in early stages of the disease.

The rate of prostate cancer occurrence in Asian cultures is similar to the rate in Western cultures, but in the West, prostate cancer tends to progress, whereas in Asian cultures it does not. Why? A University of Colorado Cancer Center study published in the January 2013 issue of the journal Cancer Prevention Research shows that the answer may be a high-fiber diet.

The study compared mice fed with of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a major component of high-fiber diets, to control mice that were not. Then the study used MRI to monitor the progression of prostate cancer in these models.

“The study’s results were really rather profound. We saw dramatically reduced tumor volumes, primarily due to the anti-angiogenic effects of IP6,” says Komal Raina, PhD, research instructor at the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, working in the lab of CU Cancer Center investigator and School of Pharmacy faculty member, Rajesh Agarwal, PhD.

Basically, feeding with the active ingredient of a high-fiber diet kept prostate tumors from making the new blood vessels they needed to supply themselves with energy. Without this energy, prostate cancer couldn’t grow. Likewise, treatment with IP6 slowed the rate at which prostate cancers metabolized glucose.

Possible mechanisms for the effect of IP6 against metabolism include a reduction in a protein called GLUT-4, which is instrumental in transporting glucose.

“Researchers have long been looking for genetic variations between Asian and Western peoples that could explain the difference in prostate cancer progression rates, but now it seems as if the difference may not be genetic but dietary. Asian cultures get IP6 whereas Western cultures generally do not,” Raina says.

The research provides the cover image of this month’s issue of the journal.

Support provided in part by NCI RO1grant CA116636, the NCI Cancer Center P30 CA046934, and the NCRR CTSA UL1 RR025780

Vitamin E in front line of prostate cancer fight

2010 study posted for release

 

Survival rates of the world’s most common cancer might soon be increased with a new vitamin E treatment which could significantly reduce tumour regrowth.

 

 

 

Queensland University of Technology (QUT) prostate cancer researchers are leading the fight against a disease which kills 3000 Australian men a year.

 

Dr Patrick Ling, whose research will be a centrepiece of the new $354 million Translational Research Institute (TRI) when it opens in Brisbane, is leading a team of researchers who have identified a particular constituent of vitamin E, known as tocotrienol (T3), which can inhibit the growth of prostate tumours.

 

Construction of TRI officially began today (October 19) at the Princess Alexandra Hospital. The world-class facility brings together some of Queensland’s best medical researchers from four leading Australian research facilities to turn their work into accessible and potentially life-saving health treatments.

 

Dr Ling’s research has been funded by Davos Life Science in Singapore, who recently awarded him a further $128,000 to undertake a one-year study of the long-term effectiveness of T3 to prevent the recurrence of treated prostate cancer tumours.

 

“Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in developed countries,” Dr Ling said.

 

“It is responsible for more male deaths than any other cancer, except lung cancer.”

 

Dr Ling said existing chemotherapy and hormonal therapy treatment of prostate cancer was insufficient because it failed to kill off the prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs) which were believed to be responsible for the regrowth of tumours.

 

However, the research team have discovered a particular form of T3, called gamma-tocotrienol (γ-T3), can successfully kill off the prostate cancer CSCs.

 

“Currently there is no effective treatment for metastatic prostate cancer, because it grows back after conventional therapies in more than 70 per cent of cases,” he said.

 

“But with γ-T3, QUT researchers have found a better way to treat prostate cancer, which has the potential to inhibit recurrence of the disease.”

 

Dr Ling said in animal trials, γ-T3 completely inhibited tumour formation in more than 70 per cent of the mice implanted with prostate cancer cells and fed the vitamin E constituent in water. In the remaining cases, tumour regrowth was considerably reduced, while tumours reformed in 100 per cent of the control group.

 

The findings were published recently in the International Journal of Cancer.

 

The next stage of Dr Ling’s study has begun and will determine the long-term effectiveness of the γ-T3 treatment, with plans to progress to clinical trials in the future.

 

“Previous clinical trials using another vitamin E constituent to inhibit prostate cancer development were unsuccessful, but these trials did not use the vitamin E constituent γ-T3,” he said.

 

“Other research has found γ-T3 is also effective in suppressing other types of cancer, including breast, colon, liver and gastric.”

 

Dr Ling said while not all vitamin E preparations had the active constituent, natural vitamin E obtained from palm oil was rich in γ-T3.

 

Professor Ross Young, from QUT’s Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation (IHBI), said one of TRI’s greatest strengths was to bring together leading researchers.

 

“Collaboration, which combines the expertise of researchers from different disciplines and institutions to achieve common goals, will lead to better solutions,” Professor Young said.

 

QUT Vice-Chancellor Professor Peter Coaldrake said TRI would greatly benefit Queensland’s and Australia’s economy and ability to attract the world’s best researchers to our shores.

 

“By having this world-class facility producing research of the highest quality, we will be increasing Queensland’s international competitiveness in research,” Professor Coaldrake said.

 

TRI is a collaboration of QUT, the University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital and the Mater Medical Research Institute, with funding from the Australian Government, Queensland Government, The Atlantic Philanthropies, QUT and UQ.

 

Dr Ling is based at IHBI and the Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre – Queensland, a comprehensive research centre to investigate new ways to treat prostate cancer established by QUT and the Princess Alexandra Hospital with funding from the federal government.

 

His research is funded by world-leading tocotrienol manufacturer Davos Life Science. The Singapore-based company produces γ-T3 from sustainable palm plantations.

Preventing prostate cancer through androgen deprivation may have harmful effects

Contact: Jeremy Moore Jeremy.Moore@aacr.org 215-446-7109 American Association for Cancer Research

PHILADELPHIA — The use of androgen deprivation therapies to prevent precancerous prostate abnormalities developing into aggressive prostate cancer may have adverse effects in men with precancers with specific genetic alterations, according to data from a preclinical study recently published in Cancer Discovery, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

“The growth and survival of prostate cancer cells are very dependent on signals that the cancer cells receive from a group of hormones, called androgens, which includes testosterone,” said Thomas R. Roberts, Ph.D., co-chair of the Department of Cancer Biology at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and professor of biological chemistry and molecular pharmacology at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Mass.

Previous findings from two major randomized, placebo-controlled prostate cancer chemoprevention trials revealed that androgen deprivation therapy reduced the overall risk for low-grade prostate cancer. However, both trials also revealed a high cumulative risk for high-grade prostate cancers that has caused concern among experts.

High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia is a prostate abnormality that is considered to be a major precursor to prostate cancer. Loss of the tumor suppressor PTEN is detected in 9 to 45 percent of clinical cases.

Using a mouse model of PTEN-driven high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, Roberts and his colleagues investigated whether surgical or chemical androgen deprivation could prevent the cancer precursor from progressing to more aggressive disease.

“When we castrated the animals, we thought the tumors would shrink and they did initially,” Roberts said. “However, they then grew back and became invasive.”

The results of this preclinical study suggest that prophylactic reduction of the most active form of androgen, or blocking androgen receptor function, might have unintended consequences in some men.

“Stretching our data even further, these findings suggest that as men age and their testosterone levels decrease, loss of testosterone might actually encourage indolent prostate tumors to become more aggressive,” Roberts said. “This suggests that testosterone supplements might be a good thing for the prostate, even though current wisdom suggests the opposite.”

Roberts noted that these results should be interpreted with caution because the prostate glands of mice are different from their human counterparts. More data on human tumors are needed to evaluate whether the data from this mouse study are applicable to men.

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About the American Association for Cancer Research

Founded in 1907, the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) is the world’s first and largest professional organization dedicated to advancing cancer research and its mission to prevent and cure cancer. AACR membership includes more than 34,000 laboratory, translational and clinical researchers; population scientists; other health care professionals; and cancer advocates residing in more than 90 countries. The AACR marshals the full spectrum of expertise of the cancer community to accelerate progress in the prevention, biology, diagnosis and treatment of cancer by annually convening more than 20 conferences and educational workshops, the largest of which is the AACR Annual Meeting with more than 17,000 attendees. In addition, the AACR publishes seven peer-reviewed scientific journals and a magazine for cancer survivors, patients and their caregivers. The AACR funds meritorious research directly as well as in cooperation with numerous cancer organizations. As the scientific partner of Stand Up To Cancer, the AACR provides expert peer review, grants administration and scientific oversight of team science and individual grants in cancer research that have the potential for near-term patient benefit. The AACR actively communicates with legislators and policymakers about the value of cancer research and related biomedical science in saving lives from cancer.

For more information about the AACR, visit www.AACR.org.

Polyphenols in red wine and green tea halt prostate cancer growth

2010 study posted for filing

Contact: Cody Mooneyhan cmooneyhan@faseb.org 301-634-7104 Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

New report in the FASEB Journal suggests that disrupting a particular cellular signaling pathway could stop or slow the initiation, promotion, and progression of prostate cancer

In what could lead to a major advance in the treatment of prostate cancer, scientists now know exactly why polyphenols in red wine and green tea inhibit cancer growth. This new discovery, published online in The FASEB Journal (http://www.fasebj.org), explains how antioxidants in red wine and green tea produce a combined effect to disrupt an important cell signaling pathway necessary for prostate cancer growth. This finding is important because it may lead to the development of drugs that could stop or slow cancer progression, or improve current treatments.

“Not only does SphK1/S1P signaling pathway play a role in prostate cancer, but it also plays a role in other cancers, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, and gastric cancers,” said Gerald Weissmann, MD, editor-in-chief of The FASEB Journal. “Even if future studies show that drinking red wine and green tea isn’t as effective in humans as we hope, knowing that the compounds in those drinks disrupts this pathway is an important step toward developing drugs that hit the same target.”

Scientists conducted in vitro experiments which showed that the inhibition of the sphingosine kinase-1/sphingosine 1-phosphate (SphK1/S1P) pathway was essential for green tea and wine polyphenols to kill prostate cancer cells. Next, mice genetically altered to develop a human prostate cancer tumor were either treated or not treated with green tea and wine polyphenols. The treated mice showed reduced tumor growth as a result of the inhibited SphK1/S1P pathway. To mimic the preventive effects of polyphenols, another experiment used three groups of mice given drinking water, drinking water with a green tea compound known as EGCg, or drinking water with a different green tea compound, polyphenon E. Human prostate cancer cells were implanted in the mice and results showed a dramatic decrease in tumor size in the mice drinking the EGCg or polyphenon E mixtures.

“The profound impact that the antioxidants in red wine and green tea have on our bodies is more than anyone would have dreamt just 25 years ago,” Weissmann added. “As long as they are taken in moderation, all signs show that red wine and green tea may be ranked among the most potent ‘health foods’ we know.”

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Receive monthly highlights from The FASEB Journal by e-mail. Sign up at http://www.faseb.org/fjupdate.aspx. The FASEB Journal (http://www.fasebj.org) is published by the Federation of the American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB). The journal has been recognized by the Special Libraries Association as one of the top 100 most influential biomedical journals of the past century and is the most cited biology journal worldwide according to the Institute for Scientific Information.

FASEB comprises 23 societies with more than 100,000 members, making it the largest coalition of biomedical research associations in the United States. FASEB enhances the ability of scientists and engineers to improve—through their research—the health, well-being and productivity of all people. FASEB’s mission is to advance health and welfare by promoting progress and education in biological and biomedical sciences through service to our member societies and collaborative advocacy.

Details: Leyre Brizuela, Audrey Dayon, Nicolas Doumerc, Isabelle Ader, Muriel Golzio, Jean-Claude Izard, Yukihiko Hara, Bernard Malavaud, and Olivier Cuvillier. The sphingosine kinase-1 survival pathway is a molecular target for the tumor-suppressive tea and wine polyphenols in prostate cancer. doi:10.1096/fj.10-160838 ; http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/abstract/fj.10-160838v1

71st Health Research Report 08 DEC 2009 – Reconstruction

 

Editors Top Five:

 

1. Aspirin, Tylenol May Decrease Effectiveness of Vaccines (actually all antibodies, vaccinated or not) MUST READ

2. Popular diabetes drugs linked to increased risk of heart failure and death

3. Coffee consumption associated with reduced risk of advanced prostate cancer

4. Spices halt growth of breast stem cells, U-M study finds

5. Young adults’ blood lead levels linked to depression, panic disorder

 

In this issue:

 

1. Chicken capsules good for aching joints

2. Long-term physical activity has an anti-aging effect at the cellular level

3. To keep muscles strong, the ‘garbage’ has to go

4. Will copper keep us safe from the superbugs?

5. Are the effects of pornography negligible?

6. Aspirin, Tylenol May Decrease Effectiveness of Vaccines (actually all antibodies, vaccinated or not) MUST READ

7. Young adults who exercise get higher IQ

8. Toy recall of 2007 hurt innocent companies

9. Childhood lead exposure causes permanent brain damage

10. Green tea chemical combined with another may hold promise for treatment of brain disorders

11. Popular diabetes drugs linked to increased risk of heart failure and death

12. Researchers find increased dairy intake reduces risk of uterine fibroids in black women

13. Mayo Clinic and collaborators find vitamin D levels associated with survival in lymphoma patients

14. Antioxidant compound reduced incidence of colorectal metachronous adenomas

15. Exercise reduces death rate in prostate cancer patients

16. Coffee consumption associated with reduced risk of advanced prostate cancer

17. Young adults’ blood lead levels linked to depression, panic disorder

18. Spices halt growth of breast stem cells, U-M study finds

19. Most antidepressants miss key target of clinical depression

Health Research Report

71st  Issue Date 08 DEC 2009

Compiled By Ralph Turchiano

www.healthresearchreport.me www.vit.bz

www.youtube.com/vhfilm www.facebook.com/engineeringevil

www.engineeringevil.com

Study reveals 2/3 of prostate cancer patients do not need treatment

2009 study posted for filing

Contact: Samantha Martin
samantha.martin@liv.ac.uk
44-151-794-2248
University of Liverpool

In the largest study of its kind, the international team of pathologists studied an initial 4,000 prostate cancer patients over a period of 15 years to further understanding into the natural progression of the disease and how it should be managed. The research, published in the British Journal of Cancer, could be used to develop a blood test to distinguish between aggressive and non-aggressive forms of prostate cancer.

Globally, prostate cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 13% of male deaths in the UK. Studies have shown that men with non-aggressive prostate cancer can live with the disease untreated for many years, but aggressive cancer requires immediate treatment.

Pathologists found that the presence of a protein, called Hsp-27, in cancer cells was an indicator that the disease will progress and require treatment. The study showed, however, that in more than 60% of cases the protein was not expressed and the cancer could be managed by careful monitoring, rather than with active invention methods, such as drug treatment or surgery.

The protein normally has a positive function in the body, helping healthy cells survive when they are placed under ‘stressful’ conditions, such as disease or injury. If the protein is expressed in cancer, however, it can prevent the diseased cells from dying, allowing the cancer to progress. The team, supported by Cancer Research UK (CRUK) and in collaboration with scientists in London and New York, found that the protein can be used to predict how the disease will behave and could help doctors advise patients on how the disease could affect their daily lives.

Professor Chris Foster, Head of the University’s Division of Pathology, explains: “Cancer of any kind is a very distressing disease and has the ability to impact on every aspect of a person’s life. Chemotherapy and surgery can also have a significant effect on health and wellbeing and that is why it is important that we first understand the biological nature of the disease and how it will behave in each individual patient, before determining if and when a person needs a particular type of treatment.

“By studying the disease in a large number of men throughout the UK and over a long period of time, we have been able to get a more complete picture of how to manage the disease successfully, whilst limiting the negative impact it can have on a patient’s life. The study also demonstrates the role of modern of Pathology, not only in establishing diagnoses but in determining if the subsequent management of individual patients is biologically appropriate for their particular condition.

“The protein – or biomarker – we have identified provides us with a signal that the disease will continue to progress. We know that at the point this marker is expressed, medics need to administer treatment to kill the cancer cells. We have shown that in the majority of cases, however, this marker is not expressed and therefore patients do not necessarily need to go through treatment to lead a normal life.”

 

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Notes to editors:

1. Patients looking for more information about the new test should discuss the procedure with a Consultant Urologist. Currently, the test can be performed after the patient has undergone a biopsy. Scientists are now working to allow the test to be conducted by blood test.

2. Pathology research at Liverpool is internationally renowned. The division provides services in diagnostic pathology to the Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals Trust as well as offering services in specialised fields of pathology to several other hospitals in the North of England.

3. Cancer Research UK is the world’s leading independent organisation dedicated to cancer research. The organisation supports research into all aspects of cancer through the work of more than 4,500 scientists, doctors and nurses.

4. The BJC is owned by Cancer Research UK. Its mission is to encourage communication of the very best cancer research from laboratories and clinics in all countries. Broad coverage, its editorial independence and consistent high standards have made BJC one of the world’s premier general cancer journals. www.bjcancer.com.

5. The University of Liverpool is a member of the Russell Group of leading research-intensive institutions in the UK. It attracts collaborative and contract research commissions from a wide range of national and international organisations valued at more than £93 million annually.

66th Health Research Report 29 SEP 2009 – Reconstruction

 Editors Top Five:

1. Zero tolerance, zero effect

2. New vitamin K analysis supports the triage theory

3. Study reveals 2/3 of prostate cancer patients do not need treatment

4. Gut worms may protect against house-dust mite allergy

5. Medical ethics experts identify, address key issues in H1N1 pandemic

In this Issue:

1. Scientists cure color blindness in monkeys

2. Rich people don’t need friends

3. New evidence that green tea may help improve bone health

4. Zero tolerance, zero effect

5. Chemobrain – the flip side of surviving cancer

6. New vitamin K analysis supports the triage theory

7. ANTIOXIDANT CONTROLS SPINAL CORD DEVELOPMENT

8. Scientists find that individuals in vegetative states can learn

9. Early results: In children, 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine works like seasonal flu vaccine

10. Insufficient levels of vitamin D puts elderly at increased risk of dying from heart disease

11. New research provides new insight into age-related muscle decline

12. Medical ethics experts identify, address key issues in H1N1 pandemic

13. Study reveals 2/3 of prostate cancer patients do not need treatment

14. Heparin can cause skin lesions

15. Gut worms may protect against house-dust mite allergy

16. Most would refuse emergency use H1N1 vaccine or additive

17. Young Adults May Outgrow Bipolar Disorder

Health Research Report

66th  Issue Date 29 SEP 2009

Compiled By Ralph Turchiano

www.healthresearchreport.me www.vit.bz

www.youtube.com/vhfilm www.facebook.com/engineeringevil

www.engineeringevil.com

Hormone therapy for prostate cancer patients with heart conditions linked to increased death risk : Doubles risk of dying

2009 study posted for filing

Contact: Lori J. Shanks ljshanks@partners.org 617-534-1604 JAMA and Archives Journals

Men with coronary artery disease-induced congestive heart failure or heart attack who receive hormone therapy before or along with radiation therapy for treatment of prostate cancer have an associated increased risk of death, according to a study in the August 26 issue of JAMA.

Patients with localized prostate cancer have several options available for treatment, including the use of brachytherapy (treatment in which radioactive seeds are implanted in the prostate), both as monotherapy and in conjunction with external beam radiation therapy, according to background information in the article. Neoadjuvant (treatment that is given before or with the primary treatment) hormonal therapy (HT) is used as a means for prostate gland cytoreduction (decrease in number of cells, as in a tumor) in order to eliminate pubic arch (an arch formed by the pubic bones) interference and improve the ability to perform brachytherapy. Previous research has suggested that “hormonal therapy when added to radiation therapy (RT) for treating unfavorable-risk prostate cancer leads to an increase in survival except possibly in men with moderate to severe comorbidity [co-existing illnesses]. However, it is unknown which comorbid conditions eliminate this survival benefit,” the authors write.

Akash Nanda, M.D., Ph.D., of Brigham & Women’s Hospital–Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, and colleagues assessed whether neoadjuvant HT use in men with prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy affects the risk of all-cause death of men with known coronary artery disease–induced conditions, including congestive heart failure and heart attack. The study included 5,077 men (median [midpoint] age, 69.5 years) with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer who were treated with or without a median of 4 months of neoadjuvant HT followed by RT between 1997 and 2006 and were followed up until July 2008.

During the study period, 419 men died. Of those, 200 had no underlying comorbidity, 176 had one coronary artery disease risk factor, and 43 had a history of known coronary artery disease resulting in congestive heart failure or heart attack. Analyses of the data indicated that “when considering comorbidity groups separately, neoadjuvant HT use was not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in men with no comorbidity (9.6 percent vs. 6.7 percent) or a single coronary artery disease risk factor (10.7 percent vs. 7.0 percent) after median follow-ups of 5.0 years and 4.4 years, respectively,” the researchers write.

However, for men with coronary artery disease–induced congestive heart failure or heart attack, after a median follow-up of 5.1 years, neoadjuvant HT use was associated with nearly twice the risk of all-cause mortality (26.3 percent vs. 11.2 percent).

“It is also important to note that the population of men in whom the use of neoadjuvant HT may be detrimental was limited to 5 percent (256 of 5,077) in this community-based study cohort. This latter point may explain why there has been a survival benefit observed in the major randomized trials comparing HT plus external beam radiation therapy to external beam radiation therapy alone,” the authors write.

“The clinical significance of this finding is that for men with favorable-risk prostate cancer and a history of congestive heart failure or myocardial infarction who require neoadjuvant HT solely to eliminate pubic arch interference, alternative strategies such as active surveillance or treatment with external beam radiation therapy or prostatectomy should be considered. However, for men with unfavorable–risk prostate cancer who require HT in addition to radiation therapy to take advantage of its survival benefit, appropriate medical evaluation prior to initiation should facilitate clinicians in balancing the relative risks against the benefits of HT use.”

###

 

(JAMA. 2009;302[8]:866-873. Available pre-embargo to the media at www.jamamedia.org)

Editor’s Note: Please see the article for additional information, including other authors, author contributions and affiliations, financial disclosures, funding and support, etc.

Report: Prostate cancer screening has yet to prove its worth

2009 study posted for filing

Contact: David Sampson david.sampson@cancer.org American Cancer Society

ATLANTA—June 29, 2009—The recent release of two large randomized trials suggests that if there is a benefit of screening, it is, at best, small, says a new report in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.  Authored by Otis W. Brawley, M.D. of the American Cancer Society and Donna Ankerst, Ph.D. and Ian M. Thompson, M.D. of the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, the review says because prostate cancer is virtually ubiquitous in men as they age, it is clear that a goal of “finding more cancers” is not acceptable. Instead, public health principles demand that screening must reduce the risk of death from prostate cancer, reduce the suffering from prostate cancer, or reduce health care costs when compared with a non-screening scenario. The authors suggest prostate cancer screening has yet to reach one of these standards to date.

No major medical group, including the American Cancer Society, currently recommends routine prostate cancer screening for men at average risk. In the United States, prostate cancer will affect one man in six men during his lifetime. Since the mid-1980s, screening with the prostate–specific antigen (PSA) blood test has more than doubled the risk of a prostate cancer diagnosis. The review says a decrease in prostate cancer death rates has been observed since that time, but the relative contribution of PSA testing as opposed to other factors, such as improved treatment, has been uncertain.

The report says a computer modeling study using National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries estimated that more than one in four cancers detected in whites (29 percent) and nearly half of cancers detected in blacks (44 percent) were overdiagnosed cancers. A similar model using data from Europe estimated a 50 percent overdiagnosis rate. The authors say patients who are diagnosed with clinically insignificant tumors are subject to unnecessary diagnostic tests and unneeded treatment and suffer psychosocial harms. They are also labeled “a cancer patient,” which can have negative economic consequences. Also, say the authors, overdiagnosis significantly affects 5–year survival statistics, making them uninformative in demonstrating progress in cancer control.

The report says the future of prostate cancer will include better screening tests, better methods to assess a man’s risk of prostate cancer, and prevention strategies, including the use of finasteride, a drug currently used for the treatment of urinary symptoms related to prostate enlargement.

In a separate but related editorial, Peter Boyle, Ph.D., D.Sc., of the International Prevention Research Institute, Lyon, France and report co-author Dr. Brawley say “the real impact and tragedy of prostate cancer screening is the doubling of the lifetime risk of a diagnosis of prostate cancer with little if any decrease in the risk of dying from this disease.” They say in 1985, before PSA screening was available, an American man had an 8.7 percent lifetime risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer and a 2.5 percent lifetime risk of dying from the disease. Twenty years later, in 2005, an American man had a 17 percent lifetime risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer and a 3 percent risk of dying from the disease. They add that even in the best case scenario, applying the findings of a European trial that found PSA led to a 20 percent reduction in the risk of death, the average man who chooses screening decreases his risk of prostate cancer death from a lifetime risk of 3 percent to a lifetime risk of 2.4 percent. In exchange, he doubles the chances of becoming a prostate cancer patient, his risk of diagnosis rising from about nine percent to at least 17 percent.

They conclude that “men should discuss the now quantifiable risks and benefits of having a PSA test with their physician and then share in making an informed decision,” and that “the weight of the decision should not be thrown into the patient’s lap.”

###

Article: “Screening for Prostate Cancer,” Otis W. Brawley, MD; Donna Ankerst, PhD; and Ian M. Thompson, MD, CA Cancer J Clin, July/Aug 2009 doi:10.3322/caac.20026.

Editorial: “Prostate Cancer: Current Evidence Weighs Against Population Screening,” Peter Boyle, PhD, DSc; Otis W. Brawley, MD, CA Cancer J Clin, July/Aug 2009 doi:10.3322/caac.20025.

Author contact: David Sampson, American Cancer Society: david.sampson@cancer.org

CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians is a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society providing cancer care professionals with up-to-date information on all aspects of cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Published six times per year, CA is the most widely circulated oncology journal in the world, with a circulation of approximately 88,000, including primary care physicians; medical, surgical, and radiation oncologists; nurses; other health care and public health professionals; and students in various health care fields. Although CA is an oncology journal, it is not a journal only for oncologists. It reaches a very wide and diverse group of professionals, and provides an unparalleled opportunity to present information to these professionals about cancer prevention, early detection, treatment, palliation, advocacy issues, quality-of-life topics, and more. The most-recent 2008 ISI Journal Citation Report showed that CA is #1 in the oncology

60th Health Research Report 07 JUL 2009 – Reconstruction

Editors Top Five:

1.Your Arteries on Wonder Bread

2.Report: Prostate cancer screening has yet to prove its worth

3. Doubts cast on credibility of some published clinical trials

4. Health food supplement may curb compulsive hair pulling

5. Acid-reducing medicines may lead to dependency

In this issue:

1.Irritability should be considered when diagnosing bipolar disorder in children

2. Kidney damage from medical imaging procedures can cause long-term health problems

3. Chemicals in common consumer products may play a role in pre-term births

4. Vitamin A derivative provides clues to better breast cancer drugs

5.Your Arteries on Wonder Bread

6. Tryptophan deficiency may underlie quinine side effects

7. Mice run faster on high-grade oil

8.Report: Prostate cancer screening has yet to prove its worth

9. Magic ingredient in breast milk protects babies’ intestines

10.K-STATE RESEARCHER STUDIES THE ANTI-CANCER CAPABILITIES OF A SPECIAL PURPLE SWEET POTATO

11.Triggering muscle development — a therapeutic cure for muscle wastage?

12.Acid-reducing medicines may lead to dependency

13.Doubts cast on credibility of some published clinical trials

14.. Caffeine reverses memory impairment in Alzheimer’s mice

15.Researchers find possible environmental causes for Alzheimer’s, diabetes

16.Muscle damage may be present in some patients taking statins

17. Health food supplement may curb compulsive hair pulling

18.Sugar substitute appears to prevent early childhood cavities

Health Research Report

60th Issue Date 07 JUL 2009

Compiled By Ralph Turchiano

www.healthresearchreport.me www.vit.bz

www.youtube.com/vhfilm www.facebook.com/engineeringevil

www.engineeringevil.com

Omega-3 fatty acids reduce risk of advanced prostate cancer

2009 study posted for filing

Contact: Jeremy Moore
Jeremy.moore@aacr.org
267-646-0557
American Association for Cancer Research

PHILADELPHIA – Omega-3 fatty acids appear protective against advanced prostate cancer, and this effect may be modified by a genetic variant in the COX-2 gene, according to a report in Clinical Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

“Previous research has shown protection against prostate cancer, but this is one of the first studies to show protection against advanced prostate cancer and interaction with COX-2,” said John S. Witte, Ph.D., professor of epidemiology and biostatistics at the University of California San Francisco.

For the current study, researchers performed a case-control analysis of 466 men diagnosed with aggressive prostate cancer and 478 healthy men. Diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and researchers genotyped nine COX-2 single nucleotide polymorphisms.

Researchers divided omega-3 fatty acid intake into four groups based on quartiles of intake. Men who consumed the highest amount of long chain omega-3 fatty acids had a 63 percent reduced risk of aggressive prostate cancer compared to men with the lowest amount of long chain omega-3 fatty acids.

The researchers then assessed the effect of omega-3 fatty acid among men with the variant rs4647310 in COX-2, a known inflammatory gene. Men with low long chain omega-3 fatty acid intake and this variant had a more than five-fold increased risk of advanced prostate cancer. But men with high intake of omega-3 fatty acids had a substantially reduced risk, even if they carried the COX-2 variant.

“The COX-2 increased risk of disease was essentially reversed by increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake by a half a gram per day,” said Witte. “If you want to think of the overall inverse association in terms of fish, where omega-3 fatty acids are commonly derived, the strongest effect was seen from eating dark fish such as salmon one or more times per week.”

 

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The mission of the American Association for Cancer Research is to prevent and cure cancer. Founded in 1907, AACR is the world’s oldest and largest professional organization dedicated to advancing cancer research. The membership includes more than 28,000 basic, translational and clinical researchers; health care professionals; and cancer survivors and advocates in the United States and 80 other countries. The AACR marshals the full spectrum of expertise from the cancer community to accelerate progress in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer through high-quality scientific and educational programs. It funds innovative, meritorious research grants. The AACR Annual Meeting attracts more than 17,000 participants who share the latest discoveries and developments in the field. Special conferences throughout the year present novel data across a wide variety of topics in cancer research, treatment and patient care. The AACR publishes five major peer-reviewed journals: Cancer Research; Clinical Cancer Research; Molecular Cancer Therapeutics; Molecular Cancer Research; and Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. The AACR’s most recent publication and its sixth major journal, Cancer Prevention Research, is dedicated exclusively to cancer prevention, from preclinical research to clinical trials. The AACR also publishes CR, a magazine for cancer survivors and their families, patient advocates, physicians and scientists. CR provides a forum for sharing essential, evidence-based information and perspectives on progress in cancer research, survivorship and advocacy.

Curcumin curbs metastases

Munich, 10/12/2012

Powdered turmeric has been used for centuries to treat osteoarthritis and other illnesses. Its active ingredient, curcumin, inhibits inflammatory reactions. A new study now shows that it can also inhibit formation of metastases. Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies in the Western world, and is often diagnosed only after metastatic tumors have formed in other organs. In three percent of cases, these metastases are lethal. A research team led by PD Dr. Beatrice Bachmeier at LMU Munich has been studying the mode of action of a natural product that inhibits the formation of metastases. The compound is found in turmeric, a plant that has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years, and is a major ingredient of curry.

Bachmeier’s research centers on curcumin, the polyphenol responsible for the characteristic color of curry. Curcumin is well tolerated and is therefore, in principle, suitable both for prophylactic use (primary prevention) and also for the suppression of metastases in cases where an established tumor is already present (secondary prevention). In a previous study Bachmeier and her colleagues had demonstrated that the substance reduces statistically significantly the formation of lung metastases in an animal model of advanced breast cancer.

Mitigating metastasis

The new study was designed to investigate the efficacy of curcumin in the prevention of prostate cancer metastases, and to determine the agent’s mechanism of action. The researchers first examined the molecular processes that are abnormally regulated in prostate carcinoma cells. Breast and prostate cancers are often associated with latent or chronic inflammatory reactions, and in both cases, the tumor cells were found to produce pro-inflammatory immunomodulators including the cytokines CXCL1 und CXCL2.

The researchers went on to show that curcumin specifically decreases the expression of these two proteins, and in a mouse model, this effect correlated with a decline in the incidence of metastases. “Due to the action of curcumin, the tumor cells synthesize smaller amounts of cytokines that promote metastasis,” says Bachmeier. “As a consequence, the frequency of metastasis formation in the lungs is significantly reduced, in animals with breast cancer, as we showed previously, or carcinoma of the prostate, as demonstrated in our new study.”

Curcumin and chemoprevention

Bachmeier therefore believes that curcumin may be useful in the prevention of breast and prostate cancers – which are both linked to inflammation – and in reducing their metastatic potential. “This does not mean that the compound should be seen as a replacement for conventional therapies. However, it could play a positive role in primary prevention – before a full-blown tumor arises – or help to avert formation of metastases. In this context the fact that the substance is well tolerated is very important, because one can safely recommend it to individuals who have an increased tumor risk.”

A daily intake of up to 8g of curcumin is regarded as safe, and its anti-inflammatory properties have long been exploited in traditional oriental medicine. Men with benign hyperplasia of the prostate (BHP) are one possible target group for prophylaxis, as are women who have a family history of breast cancer. The agent might also be valuable as a supplement to certain cancer therapies. At all events, curcumin’s beneficial effects must first be confirmed in controlled clinical tests. Bachmeier is now planning such a trial in patients who suffer from therapy-resistant carcinoma of the prostate.

(Carcinogenesis online, 5 October 2012) bedo / suwe

Possible link found between X-rays and prostate cancer

Re-Post 2008

Contact: Professor Kenneth Muir
kenneth.muir@nottingham.ac.uk
44-011-582-30469
University of Nottingham

Researchers at The University of Nottingham have shown an association between certain past diagnostic radiation procedures and an increased risk of young-onset prostate cancer — a rare form of prostate cancer which affects about 10 per cent of all men diagnosed with the disease.

The study, the first of its kind to report the relationship between low dose ionising radiation from diagnostic procedures and the risk of prostate cancer, was funded by the Prostate Cancer Research Foundation (PCRF) and is part of the UK Genetic Prostate Cancer Study (UKGPCS). The results of the study have been published online in the British Journal of Cancer.

The study showed that men who had a hip or pelvic X-ray or barium enema 10 years previously were two and a half times more likely to develop prostate cancer than the general population. And the link appeared to be stronger in men who had a family history of the disease.

The research was led by Professor Kenneth Muir, from the Division of Epidemiology and Public Health at The University of Nottingham, in association with Dr Rosalind Eeles at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust.

Professor Muir said: “Although these results show some increase in the risk of developing prostate cancer in men who had previously had certain radiological medical tests we want to reassure men that the absolute risks are small and there is no proof that the radiological tests actually caused any of the cancers.”

Four hundred and thirty one men, diagnosed with young onset prostate cancer — men diagnosed with the disease before the age of 60 — took part in the study.

The exposure to radiation was part of normal medical procedures which were performed 5, 10 or 20 years before diagnosis. Procedures included hip and leg X-rays, for example taken after an accident, and barium meals and enemas which are used to diagnose problems with the digestive system.

At this stage the evidence linking diagnostic radiation procedures and prostate cancer is still weak. This research suggests that further investigation into this link should be undertaken.

X-ray procedures used for diagnostic purposes deliver very small amounts of radiation per procedure. Their use is minimised in current medical practice. For most people X-rays do not increase the risk of developing cancer.

 

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Notes to Editors: The University of Nottingham is ranked in the UK’s Top 10 and the World’s Top 70 universities by the Shanghai Jiao Tong (SJTU) and Times Higher (THE) World University Rankings.

It provides innovative and top quality teaching, undertakes world-changing research, and attracts talented staff and students from 150 nations. Described by The Times as Britain’s “only truly global university”, it has invested continuously in award-winning campuses in the United Kingdom, China and Malaysia.

Twice since 2003 its research and teaching academics have won Nobel Prizes. The University has won the Queen’s Award for Enterprise in both 2006 (International Trade) and 2007 (Innovation — School of Pharmacy).

Its students are much in demand from ‘blue-chip’ employers. Winners of Students in Free Enterprise for four years in succession, and current holder of UK Graduate of the Year, they are accomplished artists, scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs, innovators and fundraisers. Nottingham graduates consistently excel in business, the media, the arts and sport. Undergraduate and postgraduate degree completion rates are amongst the highest in the United Kingdom.

More information is available from Professor Kenneth Muir on +44 (0)115 8230469, kenneth.muir@nottingham.ac.uk or Media Relations Manager Lindsay Brooke in the University’s Communications Office on +44 (0)115 9515751, lindsay.brooke@nottingham.ac.uk

Androgen deprivation therapy for localized prostate cancer not associated with improved survival

Re-Post 2008

Contact: Michele Fisher
732-235-9872
JAMA and Archives Journals

A therapy that involves depriving the prostate gland the male hormone androgen is not associated with improved survival for elderly men with localized prostate cancer, compared to conservative management of the disease, according to a study in the July 9 issue of JAMA.

Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death among men. “For the majority of men with incident prostate cancer (approximately 85 percent), disease is diagnosed at localized (T1-T2) stages, and standard treatment options include surgery, radiation, or conservative management (i.e., deferral of treatment until necessitated by disease signs or symptoms). Although not standard or sanctioned by major groups or guidelines, an increasing number of clinicians and patients have turned to primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT) as an alternative to surgery, radiation, or conservative management, especially among older men,” the authors write. In a 1999-2001 survey, PADT had become the second most common treatment approach, after surgery, for localized prostate cancer, despite a lack of data regarding PADT’s efficacy.

Grace L. Lu-Yao, M.P.H., Ph.D., of the Cancer Institute of New Jersey, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, N.J., and colleagues assessed the association between PADT and disease-specific survival and overall survival in 19,271 men with T1-T2 (localized) prostate cancer (diagnosed in 1992 – 2002). The patients, age 66 years or older, did not receive definitive local therapy (i.e., such as prostatectomy) for prostate cancer. Among the patients, 7,867 (41 percent) received PADT, and 11,404 were treated with conservative management, not including PADT. During the follow-up period (through December 2006 for all-cause mortality and through December 2004 for prostate cancer–specific mortality) there were 1,560 prostate cancer deaths and 11,045 deaths from all causes.

The researchers found that use of PADT for localized prostate cancer was associated with lower 10-year prostate cancer–specific survival (80.1 percent vs. 82.6 percent) and no increase in 10-year overall survival compared with conservative management. However, in a prespecified subset analysis, PADT use in men with poorly differentiated cancer was associated with improved 10-year prostate cancer–specific survival (59.8 percent vs. 54.3 percent) but not overall survival (17.3 percent vs. 15.3 percent).

“The significant adverse effects and costs associated with PADT, along with our finding of a lack of overall survival benefit, suggest that clinicians should carefully consider the rationale for initiating PADT in elderly patients with T1-T2 prostate cancer,” the authors conclude.

 

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(JAMA. 2008;300[2]:173-181. Available pre-embargo to the media at www.jamamedia.org)

Editor’s Note: Please see the article for additional information, including other authors, author contributions and affiliations, financial disclosures, funding and support, etc

35th Health Research Report 22 JUL 2008 – Reconstruction

 

Editors Top Five:

1. Environmental pollutant has sex-skewing effect

2. Stomach bug appears to protect kids from asthma, says NYU study

3. Cranberry juice creates energy barrier that keeps bacteria away from cells, study shows

4. 89 percent of children’s food products provide poor nutritional quality

5. Schering-Plough, Merck’s Vytorin misses study goal

 

 

In This Issue:

1. Androgen deprivation therapy for localized prostate cancer not associated with improved survival

2. Male cyclists risk sexual problems if they don’t choose the right bike

3. Aerosol toxins from red tides may cause long-term health threat

4. Scientists learn how food affects the brain

5. Risk of gall bladder disease with HRT patches lower than with HRT pills

6. 89 percent of children’s food products provide poor nutritional quality

7. Stomach bug appears to protect kids from asthma, says NYU study

8. Consumption of nut products during pregnancy linked to increased asthma in children

9. Environmental pollutant has sex-skewing effect

10. Possible link found between x-rays and prostate cancer

11. Study: Regular walking nearly halves elderly disability risk

12. The epigenetics of increasing weight through the generations

13. Removing ovaries during hysterectomy: Effects remain unknown

14. Cranberry juice creates energy barrier that keeps bacteria away from cells, study shows

15. Scientists identify how gastric reflux may trigger asthma

16. Schering-Plough, Merck’s Vytorin misses study goal

Health Technology Research Synopsis

35th Issue Date 22 JUL 2008

Compiled By Ralph Turchiano

www.healthresearchreport.me www.vit.bz

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www.engineeringevil.com

 

 

 

 

32nd Health Research Report 11 JUN 2008 – Reconstructed

32nd Health Research Report 11 JUN 2008 – Reconstructed

 

 

 

Editors Top Five:

 
1.      US reporters often do a poor job of reporting about new medical treatments
2.      Pycnogenol improved diabetes control and reduced antihypertensive medications
3.      How advanced prostate cancer becomes resistant to androgen-deprivation therapy
4.      Is tap water safe for expectant mothers?
5.      The good news in our DNA: Defects you can fix with vitamins and minerals

 

 

In this issue:

 
1.      Childhood lead exposure associated with criminal behavior in adulthood
2.      US reporters often do a poor job of reporting about new medical treatments
3.      People with ADHD do 1 month’s less work per year
4.      Combining exercise with hormone could prevent weight gain
5.      Estrogen Helps Drive Distinct, Aggressive Form of Prostate Cancer
6.      New breathing exercises help manage asthma
7.      Intestinal bacteria promote — and prevent — inflammatory bowel disease
8.      New vegetarian food with several benefits
9.      Pycnogenol improved diabetes control and reduced antihypertensive medications
10.  Dehydrated tomatoes show promise for preventing prostate cancer
Exercise cuts cancer death in men
12.  US soldiers in high-tuberculosis areas face new epidemic: false positives
13.  Whole milk is effective and cost-effective as oral contrast agent
14.  How advanced prostate cancer becomes resistant to androgen-deprivation therapy
15.  Bisphenol A: Controversy over widely used plastics chemical spurs product changes, regulatory debate
16.   Vitamins Help Prevent Vision Loss from AMD—If Used Correctly
17.  The good news in our DNA: Defects you can fix with vitamins and minerals
18.  Is tap water safe for expectant mothers?
19.  Despite vaccine, public should not get complacent about pneumococcal disease
20.  Agent in red wine found to keep hearts young
21.  Increased Incidence of Melanoma Found in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated with Methotrexate
22.  Long-term pesticide exposure may increase risk of diabetes
23.  Moores UCSD Cancer Center study links vitamin D, type 1 diabetes
24.  Another new wrinkle in treating skin aging
25.  Study finds Chinese food good for your heart
26.  Men with vitamin D deficiency may have increased risk of heart attack
27.  Eating fish and foods with omega-3 fatty acids linked to lower risk of age-related eye disease
28.  World’s oldest woman had normal brain
29.  Solid tumor cells not killed by radiation and chemotherapy become stronger
30.  Common bowel problem linked to chili pepper pain receptor
 
 

 

 

Health Technology Research Synopsis

32nd Issue Date 11 JUN 2008

Compiled By Ralph Turchiano

www.healthresearchreport.me www.vit.bz

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www.engineeringevil.com

 

External-beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer linked to other cancer

Contact: Lacey Holt
lholt@auanet.org
American Urological Association

Bladder, lung and colorectal cancers

ORLANDO, FL, May 18, 2008—Patients undergoing external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for localized prostate cancer may be at an increased risk for secondary malignancy, according to a study from researchers in Canada, Italy and the United States presented today during the Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Urological Association (AUA) in Orlando. Researchers presented data to reporters during a special press conference on May 19, 2008 at 1:30 p.m.

These findings have significant implications for men evaluating treatment options for localized prostate cancer.

Using records from 10,333 men treated for localized prostate cancer (6,196 with radical prostatectomy and 4,137 with EBRT) between 1983 and 2004, researchers examined subsequent diagnoses of bladder, lung and colorectal cancer to determine whether the incidence rate of these secondary malignancies was greater in patients who underwent EBRT as opposed to radical prostatectomy.

Researchers used diagnosis codes defining cystectomy, lobectomy or pneumectomy (for lung cancer) and colectomy (with or without rectal resection) for colorectal cancer to identify the incidence of secondary malignancy in this study population. 92 cystectomies, 82 lung cancer surgeries and 228 colorectal cancer surgeries were performed. Univariable analyses showed an increase in the rate of secondary malignancy treatment in men treated with EBRT. Multivariate analysis was performed, with adjustments made for age, baseline comorbidities and year of treatment – and indicated that EBRT predisposed patients to a 3.0-fold increase for cystectomy for bladder cancer, 1.8-fold rate of lung-cancer resections and 1.7-fold higher rate of rectal cancer.

 

###

In addition to the authors, Christopher L. Amling, M.D., a member of the AUA Public Media Committee, will be on hand to provide expert commentary on the studies.

NOTE TO REPORTERS: Experts are available to discuss these studies outside normal briefing times. To arrange an interview with an expert, please contact the AUA Communications Office at the number above or e-mail Wendy Isett at wisett@auanet.org.

Bhojani N, Jeldres C, Da Pozzo LF, Morgan M, Shariat S, Perrotte P et al: External-beam radiation therapy increases the rate of secondary malignancies relative to radical prostatectomy in men with prostate cancer. J Urol, suppl., 2008; 179: 113, abstract 318.

About the American Urological Association: Founded in 1902 and headquartered near Baltimore, Maryland, the American Urological Association is the pre-eminent professional organization for urologists, with more than 15,000 members throughout the world. An educational nonprofit organization, the AUA pursues its mission of fostering the highest standards of urologic care by carrying out a wide variety of programs members and their patients, including UrologyHealth.org, an award-winning on-line patient education resource, and the American Urological Association Foundation, Inc

Study reveals inaccuracies in studies of cancer treatment; i.e.Prostate Androgen Therapy had a Higher Death rate than Non

Repost for Filing 2008

Contact: David Sampson
david.sampson@cancer.org
American Cancer Society

Certain biases may exist in observational studies that compare outcomes of different cancer therapies, making the results questionable. That is the conclusion of a new study published in the June 1, 2008 issue of CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society. The research suggests that observational studies should include more thorough information and should be better designed to minimize inaccuracies.

Clinical trials are considered the gold standard for demonstrating the effectiveness of new treatments for cancer, but observational studies, which do not involve randomization but where available data are nonetheless analyzed to make treatment comparisons, have also been used to provide information on how well patients respond to particular drugs. Many investigators perform these types of studies by analyzing data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Tumor Registry, a national population-based cancer registry that collects cancer-related information.

To determine the accuracy of observational studies on cancer treatments, Dr. Sharon H. Giordano of the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston and her colleagues compared the effectiveness of different cancer therapies in terms of prolonging survival in patients, using data from the SEER registry. They presented several examples, including re-analyses of previously published data. In all cases, they came up with improbable results, indicating how easy it is to generate questionable results when conducting an observational study.

In their first analysis, the researchers looked at data on a hormone therapy called androgen deprivation in men with stage III prostate cancer. Randomized clinical trials have shown that androgen deprivation can improve survival in these patients. When the investigators analyzed data from the SEER registry of more than 5,000 men, they found that men treated with androgen deprivation actually had a higher risk of death from prostate cancer than men who did not receive the therapy.

Dr. Giordano and her team next re-analyzed data from a previously published study of more than 43,000 men with localized prostate cancer who were treated compared with men who were not treated. Like the original study, the researchers’ analysis revealed that men who were treated for prostate cancer experienced lower mortality rates. However, they also found that in many cases, the cause of death was due to something other than prostate cancer, such as diabetes or pneumonia.

Finally, the investigators re-analyzed data from a previously published study on the effects of fluorouracil-based chemotherapy for colon cancer. They came to the same conclusion as the original research study—that chemotherapy for node positive colon cancer is associated with improved survival. However, they found that the link between the treatment and survival was strongest for non-cancer deaths, which presumably are not related.

The authors attributed the improbable results found in their three analyses to selection biases when patients are treated. For example, selection bias occurs when patients with poorer prognoses are more likely to receive a more efficacious drug, or when patients with better underlying health are more likely to receive a more toxic treatment because they are more likely to tolerate it.

The authors concluded that their findings “suggest that the results of observational studies of treatment outcomes should be viewed with caution.” They recommended that analyses of observational data should at a minimum attempt to segregate patient outcomes into those that could possibly be due to the treatments vs. those that could not. Many observational studies on cancer treatments only report death rates from all causes and do not specify cancer-related deaths.

###

Article: “The limits of observational data in determining outcomes from cancer therapy.” Sharon H. Giordano, Yong-Fang Kuo, Zhigang Duan, Gabriel N. Hortobagyi, Jean Freeman, and James S. Goodwin. CANCER; Published Online: April 21, 2008 (DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23452); Print Issue Date: June 1, 2008

WSU researchers discover mechanism leading from trichomoniasis ( protozoan parasite ) to prostate cancer “40 percent greater chance of developing prostate cancer”

Contact: John Alderete, WSU professor of molecular biosciences alderete@vetmed.wsu.edu 509-335-8125 Washington State University

Finding could lead to better diagnosis and treatment

PULLMAN, Wash.—Researchers have identified a way in which men can develop prostate cancer after contracting trichomoniasis, a curable but often overlooked sexually transmitted disease.

Previous studies have teased out a casual, epidemiological correlation between the two diseases, but this latest study suggests a more tangible biological mechanism.

John Alderete, a professor at Washington State University’s School of Molecular Biosciences, says the trichomoniasis parasite activates a suite of proteins, the last of which makes sure the proteins stay active.

“It’s like switching a light switch on,” he says. “Then, if you don’t control the brightness of that light, you can go blind. That’s the problem.”

Alderete and colleagues at WSU and Washington University in St. Louis report their findings in the recent PLoS Pathogens.

Caused by a protozoan parasite, trichomoniasis is often referred to as the most common curable sexually transmitted infection. However, most infected people have no symptoms, so it often goes untreated.

“Most women, it’s the Number One sexually transmitted infection,” says Alderete. “We’re going to have at least 10 million women infected this year and an equal number of men because they all get infected if they come into contact with an infected partner.”

Infected women have a greater risk of pregnancy complications and HIV. Infected men have a 40 percent greater chance of developing prostate cancer, according to a 2006 study led by Siobhan Sutcliffe, a Washington University epidemiologist and co-author of the recent PLoS Pathogenspaper.

Sutcliffe cautions that the epidemiological link she found is not conclusive and compares the science to the early connections drawn between smoking and lung cancer.

“It’s still in a really exploratory phase,” she says.

A study after her 2006 research found no connection between trichomoniasis and prostate cancer, while a third out of Harvard found an even greater likelihood of cancer in infected men.

This latest study, she says, “is providing a molecular mechanism that might explain that association.”

Much of the study was done in a single building, WSU’s Biotechnology and Life Sciences Building, and involved two of the more accomplished researchers on the Pullman campus.

“This is just coincidence. I’ve only been here five years,” says Alderete. “And when I arrived here five years ago, I had no clue that we would be going in this kind of direction. But the more I read and the more we talked in the hallways, the more it became clear that, wait a minute, we may have something here between us.”

WSU cancer researcher Nancy Magnuson is an expert on the protein PIM1, a promoter of cancer cell growth, and identified the protein in the cascade of proteins leading from trichomoniasis to prostate cancer. WSU molecular biologist Ray Reeves brought to bear his expertise in HMGA1. The protein turns genes on and off and ended up being the actor making sure other proteins in the trichomoniasis-to-cancer sequence stay on.

Alderete hopes knowledge of the mechanism will lead to better diagnosis and treatment.

“What this is also doing is telling the world, ‘People, this is a latent infection,'” he says. “‘You guys out there, if you’ve been exposed to it, you’ve got it in there, and we need now a diagnostic for you.'”

###

The paper can be found at http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1002801.

Sex hormones unrelated to prostate cancer risk

Contact: Liz Savage jncimedia@oxfordjournals.org 301-841-1287 Journal of the National Cancer Institute

Sex hormones circulating in the blood do not appear to be associated with prostate cancer risk, according to data from 18 prior studies. The analysis will be published online January 29 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Having high levels of male sex hormones, known as androgens, has long been hypothesized as a risk factor for prostate cancer. Nearly two dozen prospective studies have examined the relationship between circulating sex hormones and prostate cancer risk, but the results have been inconsistent.

Andrew Roddam, D.Phil., of the University of Oxford in England and colleagues at the Endogenous Hormones and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group collected the original data from 18 studies and analyzed it to determine the relationship between blood levels of sex hormones and prostate cancer. The pooled data included 3,886 men with prostate cancer and 6,438 controls.

The researchers found no association between prostate cancer risk and blood levels of different forms of testosterone or estrogen.

“The results of this collaborative analysis of the existing worldwide data on the associations between endogenous hormone concentrations and prostate cancer risk indicate that circulating concentrations of androgens and [estrogens] do not appear to be associated with the risk of prostate cancer,” the authors write.

In an accompanying editorial, Paul Godley, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill commend the authors for collaborating on this analysis, and they encourage researchers to use the results as an opportunity to shift the focus of prostate cancer research.

“The study obliges the scientific community to move past a seductive, clinically relevant, and biologically plausible hypothesis and get on with the difficult task of exploring, analyzing, and characterizing modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer,” the editorialists write.

###

Contact:

  • Editorial: Diane Shaw, director of communications, University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, dgs@med.unc.edu, (919) 966-5905

Citation:

  • Article: Endogenous Hormones and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Endogenous Sex Hormones and Prostate Cancer: A Collaborative Analysis of 18 Prospective Studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 2008; 100: 170-183
  • Editorial: Carpenter WR, Robinson WR, Godley PA. Getting Over Testosterone: Postulating a Fresh Start for Etiologic Studies of Prostate Cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2008; 100:158-159

Note to Reporters:

We have started up an e-mail list to alert reporters when papers are available on the EurekAlert site. If you would be interested on being on this list, please let us know at jncimedia@oxfordjournals.org. The content will continue to be available through EurekAlert’s e-mail system and our EurekAlert page.

The Journal of the National Cancer Institute is published by Oxford University Press and is not affiliated with the National Cancer Institute. Attribution to the Journal of the National Cancer Institute is requested in all news coverage. Visit the Journal online at http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/.

Reposted at request 2008

24th Health Research Report 06 FEB 2008 – Reconstruction

Health Technology Research Synopsis

24th Issue Date 06 FEB 2008

Compiled By Ralph Turchiano

Editors Top Five:

 

1.      Sex hormones unrelated to prostate cancer risk
2.      Over-the-counter eardrops may cause hearing loss or damage
3.      Researchers investigate links between prostate, cadmium, zinc
4.      Supplementary approach to malaria
5.      Why serotonin can cause depression and anxiety

 

 

In this issue:

 
1.      OTC cough medicine: Not worthwhile for children or adults?
2.      Cranberries might help prevent urinary infections in women
3.      Herbal remedy useful for heart failure, review finds
4.      Heart and stroke death rates steadily decline; risks still too high
5.      Modified Atkins diet can cut epileptic seizures in adults
6.      Sedentary lifestyles associated with accelerated aging process
7.      Study finds increasing rates of diabetes among older Americans
8.      Feds fund study of drug that may prevent radiation injury
9.      Over-the-counter eardrops may cause hearing loss or damage
10.  Regular marijuana use increases risk of hepatitis C-related liver damage
11.  Huge drop in preterm birth-risk among women taking folic acid 1 year before conception
12.  Babies excrete vaccine-mercury quicker than originally thought
13.  (An Extremely Flawed Study)
14.  Sex hormones unrelated to prostate cancer risk
15.  Viruses for a healthy pregnancy
16.  When it comes to Bisphenol A
17.  Researchers investigate links between prostate, cadmium, zinc
18.  Consumption of Fruits May Reduce the Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease
19.  Sugary soft drinks linked to increased risk of gout in men
20.  Study finds widespread vitamin and mineral use among cancer survivors
21.  Using flower power to fight foot woes
22.  New, non-invasive prostate cancer test beats PSA in detecting prostate cancer, researchers report
23.  Are Trans Fat Labels Working?
24.  Why serotonin can cause depression and anxiety
25.  Iodized table salt may be low in iodine, raising health concerns
26.  Folate deficiency associated with tripling of dementia risk
27.  Grapefruit compound may help combat hepatitis C infection
28.  Supplementary approach to malaria
29.  Research shows a daily does of beetroot juice can beat high blood pressure
 
 

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136 Health Research Report 24 AUG 2012

* This is Just a Report I do every 2 weeks…Only a few of these articles do I post on this Conduit. Link is at the Bottom:

Editors Top Five:

1.   Chemical widely used in antibacterial hand soaps may impair muscle function
2.   Butter flavoring in microwave popcorn, thought safe for food industry workers, is respiratory hazard
3.   Turmeric Spices Up Virus Study
4.   Scientists find protein that promotes cancers, heart disease; create substance to block its effects
5.   Green tea compound shows promise for tackling cancer

In This issue:

1.    Yale team discovers how stress and depression can shrink the brain
2.    Common antibiotics pose a rare risk of severe liver injury in older patients
3.    Chemical widely used in antibacterial hand soaps may impair muscle function
4.    Consuming flavanol-rich cocoa may enhance brain function
5.    Diabetes drugs taken by over 15 million Americans raises risk of bladder cancer
6.    Butter flavoring in microwave popcorn, thought safe for food industry workers, is respiratory hazard
7.    Why are people overconfident so often?
8.    UC Davis researchers identify cellular basis for how anti-aging cosmetics work
9.    Blood type may influence heart disease risk
10. Cocoa compounds may reduce blood pressure
11. Potent human toxins prevalent in Canada’s freshwaters
12. Study finds that yo-yo dieting does not thwart weight loss efforts or alter metabolism long term
13. A pack of walnuts a day keeps the fertility specialist away?
14. BPA link to narrowing of the arteries
15. Spiteful behavior is ‘extreme’, according to study
16. Breastfeeding may protect infants from HIV transmission
17. Yoga: a cost-effective treatment for back pain sufferers?
18. Turmeric Spices Up Virus Study
19. Why are elderly duped?
20. Common parasite may trigger suicide attempts
21. Pan-fried Meat Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer, New Study Finds
22. Photographic cholesterol test
23. Good mood foods: Some flavors in some foods resemble a prescription mood stabilizer
24. Red wine compound could help seniors walk away from mobility problems
25. Coconut water is an excellent sports drink — for light exercise
26. Drink made from berry wine may provide tasty drug for diabetes
27. Vitamin D supplementation can decrease risk of respiratory infections in children
28. Scientists find protein that promotes cancers, heart disease; create substance to block its effects
29. In your future: More healthful foods to nourish the non-human you
30. New form of long-used food ingredient for ‘anti-hunger’ yogurts, smoothies
31. Antibiotic use in infants before 6 months associated with being overweight in childhood
32. Study shows long term effects of radiation in pediatric cancer patients
33. First identification of a strong oral carcinogen in smokeless tobacco
34. First evidence from humans on how alcohol may boost risk of cancer
35. With a little training, signs of schizophrenia are averted
36. Many medications for elderly are prescribed inappropriately
37. Potency of statins linked to muscle side effects
38. Menopause evolved to prevent competition between in-laws
39. Green tea compound shows promise for tackling cancer
40. Menopause evolved to prevent competition between in-laws
41. How does body temperature reset the biological clock?
 
http://healthresearchreport.me/

Suppressive effects of a phytochemical cocktail on prostate cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. Abstract no. A104: 25% reduction in tumor size in 14 days

A commercially available nutrition drink reduces the growth of tumors in a mouse model of human prostate cancer by 25 percent in two weeks, according to researchers from the University of Sydney. The drink, Blueberry Punch, is a mixture of plant-based chemicals – phytochemicals – known to have anti-cancer properties.

“While individual phytochemicals are successful in killing cancer cells, we reasoned that synergistic or additive effects are likely to be achieved when they are combined.”

Singh and her colleagues studied the effect of the beverage on both cancer cell cultures and in mouse models that mimic human prostate cancer. After 72 hours of exposure to increasing concentrations of Blueberry Punch, prostate cancer cells showed a dose-dependent reduction in size and viability when compared with untreated cells, Singh says. After feeding mice a 10 percent solution of the punch for two weeks, the tumors in the test mice were 25 percent smaller than those found in mice that drank only tap water.

Based on these results, the researchers believe Blueberry Punch is now ready for human prostate cancer trials. Because Blueberry Punch is a food product rather than a drug, it is unlikely to have adverse reactions or side effects assuming that the individual is tolerant to all ingredients, Singh says. “The evidence we have provided suggests that this product could be therapeutic, although it requires clinical validation,” Singh said

Standard treatment for prostate cancer may encourage spread of disease

Contact: Christen Brownlee cbrownlee@jhmi.edu 410-955-7832 Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions

Finding may lead to changes in androgen deprivation therapy

A popular prostate cancer treatment called androgen deprivation therapy may encourage prostate cancer cells to produce a protein that makes them more likely to spread throughout the body, a new study by Johns Hopkins researchers suggests.

Although the finding could eventually lead to changes in this standard treatment for a sometimes deadly disease, the Johns Hopkins researchers caution that their discovery is far too preliminary for prostate cancer patients or physicians to stop using it. The therapy is effective at slowing tumor growth, they emphasized.

David Berman, an assistant professor of pathology, urology and oncology at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and his colleagues identified the unsuspected potential problem with treatments that suppress testosterone after discovering that the gene that codes for the protein, called nestin, was active in lab-grown human prostate cancer cells.

Curious about whether prostate cancer cells in people also produce nestin, the researchers looked for it in cells taken from men who had surgery to remove locally confined cancers of their prostates and found none. But when they looked for nestin in prostate cancer cells isolated from patients who had died of metastatic prostate cancer – in which cancer cells spread out from the prostate tumor –  they found substantial evidence that the nestin gene was active.

What was different, Berman speculated, is that androgen deprivation therapy, a treatment that reduces testosterone in the body, is generally given only when prostate cancers become aggressive and likely to metastasize.

Because prostate cancer growth is typically stimulated by testosterone, the treatment is thought to slow tumor growth and weaken the disease.  Patients who eventually die because their disease metastasizes are almost certain to have received this type of therapy, he says.

Speculating that depriving cells of androgens might also, however, affect nestin expression, the researchers experimented on a prostate cancer cell line that depends on androgens to grow.  When they removed androgens from the chemical mixture that the cells live in, their production of nestin increased.

Aware that the nestin gene has long been suggested to play some role in cell growth and development, Berman and his colleagues used a bit of laboratory sabotage called RNA interference to decrease the genetic expression of nestin and  found that these cells weren’t able to move around and through other cells nearly as well as cells with normal nestin levels.

Prostate cancer cells with hampered nestin expression were also less likely than normal prostate cancer cells to migrate to other parts of the body when transplanted into mice.  However, while nestin expression seemed pivotal for metastasis in these experiments, it didn’t seem to make a difference in tumor growth.

“What all this suggests is that nestin levels increased when prostate cancer cells are deprived of androgens and may encourage the cells to metastasize,” says Berman.

###

Besides Berman, other Johns Hopkins researchers involved in this study were Wolfram Kleeberger, M.D., G. Steven Bova, M.D., Matthew E. Nielsen, M.D., Mehsati Herawi, M.D., Ph.D., Ai-Ying Chuang, M.D., and Jonathan I. Epstein, M.D.

The research, published in the Oct. 1 issue of Cancer Research, was funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Evensen Family Foundation, and German Cancer Aid Foundation.

* Requested repost

Quercitin Blocks Androgen activity preventing prostate cancer growth – Otherwise 80% of prostate cancers re-appear after 1 – 2 years

Contact: Mary Lawson lawson.mary18@mayo.edu 507-284-5005 Mayo Clinic

Natural substances in fruits and vegetables may be potential treatment for prostate cancer

ROCHESTER, MINN. — Quercetin (kwer-se-ten), a natural substance found in apples, onions, tea and red wine, may be a potentially novel approach for preventing and treating prostate cancer, according to a laboratory research study conducted at Mayo Clinic in Rochester.

The results of the study were presented today, March 26, at the 92nd annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) in New Orleans. The study also is published in this month’s issue of the cancer journal Carcinogenesis.

“Our laboratory results showed quercetin blocks the androgen (hormone) activity in androgen-responsive human prostate cancer cell lines,” says Nianzeng Xing, Ph.D., the Mayo Clinic researcher who presented the results of the study at AACR.

“By blocking the androgen activity, the growth of prostate cancer cells can be prevented or stopped,” he said. “Our study suggests quercetin may be a potential non-hormonal approach to accomplishing that goal.”

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men in the United States. It annually claims about 31,500 men, accounting for about 11 percent of male cancer-related deaths.

The findings may lead to another treatment option for the nearly 200,000 men diagnosed with prostate cancer annually in the United States. It also may mean that eventually some men may not have to undergo castration, the current, commonly used treatment for advanced prostate cancer.

However, Dr. Xing cautions, more research is required to determine whether the preliminary laboratory findings about quercetin translate into actual benefit for men either at risk or diagnosed with prostate cancer.

Quercetin is an abundant, naturally occurring flavonoid compound. In addition to apples, onions, black and green tea, and red wine, the compound is found in green leafy vegetables, beans and citrus fruits.

Quercetin has been studied scientifically for the past 30 years. It’s documented as safe and having relatively low toxicity.

The compound is currently used in therapeutic treatments for allergic conditions such as asthma, hay fever, eczema and hives. It’s also used clinically to treat several inflammatory conditions, including gout, pancreatitis and prostatitis.

The Mayo Clinic study is the first research indicating quercetin has significant activity against the androgen receptor in the human prostate cancer cell lines.

Androgens are male hormones, the most common being testosterone. Androgens also are involved in the development, progression and growth of prostate cancer.

The biological effects of androgens in the prostate are mediated by the androgen receptor, says Dr. Xing. An activated androgen receptor can turn on or off critical genes, which affect the biology and pathology of the prostate.

“Our laboratory data showed that androgen receptor expression was inhibited by quercetin and the rate of response was dose-dependent,” says Dr. Xing. “Our study also delineated the mechanism by which quercetin reduced the androgen receptor.”

Androgen deprivation or suppression therapy by surgery or medication to remove or reduce the androgens is the cornerstone of current treatment for advanced prostate cancer.

“Unfortunately, the cancer recurs in about 80 percent of men within one to two years after undergoing the therapy, and this may be correlated with mutations in the androgen receptor,” says Dr. Xing.

“The androgen receptor may function with either a small of amount of androgen or independently of androgens,” he says. “As a result, the cancer learns to grow in the prostate with less hormone or even without the need of the hormones.”

In view of that fact, Dr. Xing says, “A more effective strategy in the fight against prostate cancer may be to minimize or eliminate the amount of the androgen receptor.”

The Mayo Clinic research study indicated that this strategy may be possible with quercetin.

The next step in the research process is to study the effects of quercetin in a laboratory mouse model with prostate cancer.

###DESCRIPTION OF ANDROGENS AND ANDROGEN RECEPTOR Androgens are hormones that enter the prostate cell and bind to the androgen receptor protein. The function of the androgen receptor is similar to a light switch in that the receptor turns on certain genes in the prostate. These certain genes promote the growth of prostate cancer cells. By knocking out the androgen receptor switch, as suggested by the Mayo Clinic study, prostate cancer cells are prevented from growing.

B-roll of the subject expert and news script will be fed via satellite at 10:05 a.m. CST, Monday, March 26, 2001

Mary Lawson (cell) 507-261-5714 (March 26-28) (office) 507-266-0810 (days) 507-284-2511 (evenings) e-mail: newsbureau@mayo.edu

* Reposted for category placement

Prostate cancer surgery ‘has little or no benefit’ in extending life of patients

MailOnline - news, sport, celebrity, science and health stories

 

  • The study compared surgically removing prostate gland with ‘watchful waiting’
  • Some experts now questioning whether disease should even be called cancer
  By Pamela Owen

New research into prostate cancer has revealed that surgery has little or no benefit in extending the life of a patient.

The study, which has not yet been published, compared surgically removing the prostate gland with ‘watchful waiting’ and found there was little difference between the two.

Experts are believed to be ‘shaken’ by the news because thousands of men could have gone through painful and unnecessary surgery

One expert, who did not want to be named, told the Independent newspaper: ‘The only rational response to these results is, when presented with a patient with prostate cancer, to do nothing.’

The Prostate Intervention Versus Observation Trust (PIVOT), led by Timothy Wilt, started in 1993 and analysed 731 patients over 12 years.

It found that those who had an operation to treat the cancer had less than three per cent chance of survival compared with those who had no treatment.

The results were presented at a meeting of the European Association of Urology in Paris in February and were met with a stunned silence.

One urologist said that it definitely was not a finding the medics would be eagerly tweeting about.

Cancer of the prostate is the most common male cancer and affects 37,000 men every year with up to 10,000 deaths.

In half of all cases it is slow growing with suffers living for many years and often dying of another disease.

It is believed some specialists are now questioning whether the disease should be considered a cancer at all.

The surgery, known as radical prostatectomy, can often leave patients impotent or incontinent.

However a consultant urologist at Guys and St Thomas’ NHS Trust said he did not believe that nothing should be done.

He said that many older men would with a lower-risk would not normally be offered surgery in the UK and would be offered radiotherapy or ‘watchful waiting’.

Dr Kate Holmes, head of research at the The Prostate Cancer Charity, said: ‘Early data from the Pivot trial certainly suggests that surgery to remove the prostate does not provide any significant survival benefit for men with low to medium risk of prostate cancer.

‘However, these findings are from a large ongoing trial, and we look forward to seeing the full published results which could help men in future to make more informed decisions about treatment.’

Study shows no evidence of a mortality benefit to PSA screening

Men enrolled in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial had no evidence of a mortality benefit compared to a control group of men undergoing usual care, according to a study published online Jan. 6 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening (PLCO) Trial is a multi-center, two-arm trial, which began enrollment in November 1993 with follow-up through December 2009, and was designed to evaluate the effect of screening on these specific cancers. The enrollees were aged 55-74 and had no previous personal history of these cancers. Men in the intervention arm underwent annual PSA testing for six years and annual digital rectal examination for four years, while those in the control arm received their usual medical care, which for some men included screening. A previous report of PLCO results through ten years was criticized for being too short of a follow-up period.

To determine longer-range outcomes among the men enrolled in PLCO, Gerald L. Andriole, M.D., of Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, and colleagues, examined outcomes of the men through 13 years. The researchers found a statistically significant 12% relative increase in the incidence rate of prostate cancer, and a non-statistically significant decrease in the incidence of high-grade prostate cancer in the intervention arm compared to the control arm, but no difference in mortality between the two arms.  In addition, there was no apparent differential effect of screening by age category, pre-trial PSA testing, or co-morbidity. 

The authors write, “Improvements in prostate cancer treatment are probably at least in part responsible for declining prostate cancer mortality rates. Even if life is only prolonged by therapy, the opportunities for competing causes of death increase, especially among older men.”

The authors also point out that of the 4250 prostate cancer case patients diagnosed in the intervention arm, 455 (10.7%) died of causes other than the cancer types studied; in the control arm, 3815 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer of whom 377 (9.9%) died, also of other causes. “Thus, a higher percentage of deaths from other causes rather than a deficit occurred among the prostate cancer patients diagnosed in the intervention arm, an indication of the over-diagnosis associated with PSA detection,” the authors write.

The researchers plan to again update the mortality findings from the prostate component of the PLCO after follow-up data through 15 years becomes available.

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Contact: Philip C. Prorok, prorokp@mail.nih.gov