Vitamin C Can Shorten the Length of Stay in the ICU: A Meta-Analysis
All of the six oral administration trials used vitamin C doses of 1 to 3 g/day. Overall, in these low dose oral administration studies, vitamin C reduced the length of ICU stay by 8.6%
#vitaminc #injured #ill
Vitamin C Can Shorten the Length of Stay in the ICU: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 708; doi: 10.3390/nu11040708
Alzheimer’s-like symptoms reversed in animal study
For this study, the researchers took a look at two compounds: EGCG, or epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a key ingredient in green tea, and FA, or ferulic acid, which is found in carrots, tomatoes, rice, wheat and oats.
“After three months, combination treatment completely restored working memory and the Alzheimer’s mice performed just as well as the healthy comparison mice,” Town said.
Takashi Mori, Naoki Koyama, Jun Tan, Tatsuya Segawa, Masahiro Maeda, Terrence Town. Combined treatment with the phenolics (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and ferulic acid improves cognition and reduces Alzheimer-like pathology in mice. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2019; 294 (8): 2714 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.004280
Alzheimer disease, flavonoid, amyloid precursor protein (APP), amyloid-beta (AB), secretase, transgenic, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, nonamyloidogenic, phenol, plant polyphenol, egcg, ferulic acid, green tea
Bethesda, Md. (Nov. 7, 2013)—Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease—a health problem in which the lungs lose their inherent springiness, making it progressively harder to breathe—can have a dramatic effect on the ability to exercise and even perform simple activities of daily life because of the disease’s fallout effects on skeletal muscles. Several factors have been implicated in these muscle problems. These include loss of fitness from inactivity, problems with the part of cells that convert fuel to energy caused by the COPD itself, and oxidative stress, a phenomenon in which cells and tissues become damaged by unstable molecules called free radicals that harm other molecules in domino-like chain reactions. Some research suggests that easing oxidative stress could improve skeletal muscle function.
To test this idea, researchers led by Matthew J. Rossman of the George E. Whalen VA Medical Center and the University of Utah gave COPD patients intravenous (IV) infusions of vitamin C, a powerful antioxidant that can combat oxidative stress, or saline as a placebo before the patients performed knee extension exercises and underwent neuromuscular function tests. Their findings show that IV infusions of vitamin C can improve skeletal muscle fatigue in COPD patients, further implicating the role of oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle problems that accompany this disease.
The article is entitled “Ascorbate Infusion Increases Skeletal Muscle Fatigue Resistance in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease“. It appears in the online edition of the American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, published by the American Physiological Society.
The researchers worked with 10 COPD patients. Each patient performed a set of knee extension exercises, receiving either an IV infusion of saline or an IV infusion of vitamin C before the set, but both the study volunteers and the researchers monitoring the exercises didn’t know which infusion the volunteers received. Two to three days later, the volunteers performed a second set of knee exercises after receiving the other type of infusion. Before and after they performed these exercises, the study subjects had blood drawn to test for antioxidant levels. Immediately after the exercises, the researchers measured a variety of other factors, including the volunteers’ breathing and heart rate, blood pressure, feelings of exertion of breathlessness, and blood flow.
The researchers found that during exercises, patients had significantly less muscle fatigue after receiving vitamin C and breathed better and slower. After vitamin C infusions, the volunteers also had significantly higher blood antioxidant activity than when they received only saline. Additionally, vitamin C infusions lowered their resting blood pressure and blood flow.
Importance of the Findings
These findings suggest that IV infusions of antioxidants, such as vitamin C, can curb the skeletal muscle fatigue that plagues COPD patients. They also provide further evidence that oxidative stress plays a critical role in the skeletal muscle dysfunction that many COPD patients experience. They suggest that antioxidants could eventually be used as a treatment for these problems.
“Targeting oxidative stress with some form of antioxidant therapy in a clinical setting may represent an important therapeutic avenue for patients with COPD,” they write.
In addition to Matthew J. Rossman, the study team also includes Ryan S. Garten, J. Jonathan Groot, Van Reese, Jia Zhao, Markus Amann, and Russell S. Richardson, all of the George E. Whalen VA Medical Center and the University of Utah.
Physiology is the study of how molecules, cells, tissues, and organs function in health and disease. Established in 1887, the American Physiological Society (APS) was the first US society in the biomedical sciences field. The Society represents more than 11,000 members and publishes 14 peer-reviewed journals with a worldwide readership.
NOTE TO EDITORS: To schedule an interview with a member of the research team, please contact Donna Krupa at firstname.lastname@example.org, @Phyziochick, or 301.634.7209. The article is available online at http://bit.ly/1bZiW5W.
Contact: Meng Zhao
Neural Regeneration Research
The death of retinal ganglion cells is a hallmark of many optic neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma and retinopathy. Oxidative stress is one of the major reasons to cause the cell death. A latest study, published in the Neural Regeneration Research (Vol. 8, No. 25, 2013), has shown that grape seed extract can protect retinal ganglion cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. In this study, Prof. Kwok-Fai So, an academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Prof. Daxiang Lu from Jinan University, China show that oligomeric proanthocyanidin, enriched in grape seeds, has a protective effect on retinal ganglion cells against oxidative stress-induced injury, as confirmed by using both RGC-5 cell lines and retinal explant culture. These findings imply a potential application of oligomeric proanthocyanidin in the clinical treatment of many neural diseases, from glaucoma, ischemia to neurodegenerative disease.
Article: ” Oligomeric proanthocyanidin protects retinal ganglion cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis,” by Hui Wang1, 2, Chanjuan Zhang1, 2, Dan Lu1, 2, Xiaoming Shu1, Lihong Zhu1, 2, Renbing Qi1, Kwok-Fai So2, Daxiang Lu1, Ying Xu2 (1 Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of China, Jinan University School of Medicine, Guangzhou 510632, Guangdong Province, China; 2 GHM Institute of CNS Regeneration, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, Guangdong Province, China)
Wang H, Zhang CJ, Lu D, Shu XM, Zhu LH, Qi RB, So KF, Lu DX, Xu Y. Oligomeric proanthocyanidin protects retinal ganglion cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Neural Regen Res. 2013;8(25):2317-2326.
Neural Regeneration Research
July 29, 2013 — Scientists have long been worried about the possible harmful effects of regular cellular phone use, but studies so far have been largely inconclusive. Currently, radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, such as those produced by cell phones, are classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). A new Tel Aviv University study, though, may bring bad news.
To further explore the relationship between cancer rates and cell phone use, Dr. Yaniv Hamzany of Tel Aviv University’s Sackler Faculty of Medicine and the Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Department at the Rabin Medical Center, looked for clues in the saliva of cell phone users. Since the cell phone is placed close to the salivary gland when in use, he and his fellow researchers, including departmental colleagues Profs. Raphael Feinmesser, Thomas Shpitzer and Dr. Gideon Bahar and Prof. Rafi Nagler and Dr. Moshe Gavish of the Technion in Haifa, hypothesized that salivary content could reveal whether there was a connection to developing cancer.
Comparing heavy mobile phone users to non-users, they found that the saliva of heavy users showed indications of higher oxidative stress — a process that damages all aspects of a human cell, including DNA — through the development of toxic peroxide and free radicals. More importantly, it is considered a major risk factor for cancer.
The findings have been reported in the journal Antioxidants and Redox Signaling.
Putting stress on tissues and glands
For the study, the researchers examined the saliva content of 20 heavy-user patients, defined as speaking on their phones for a minimum of eight hours a month. Most participants speak much more, Dr. Hamzany says, as much as 30 to 40 hours a month. Their salivary content was compared to that of a control group, which consisted of deaf patients who either do not use a cell phone, or use the device exclusively for sending text messages and other non-verbal functions.
Compared to the control group, the heavy cell phone users had a significant increase in all salivary oxidative stress measurements studied.
“This suggests that there is considerable oxidative stress on the tissue and glands which are close to the cell phone when in use,” he says. The damage caused by oxidative stress is linked to cellular and genetic mutations which cause the development of tumors.
Making the connection
This field of research reflects longstanding concerns about the impact of cell phone use, specifically the effects of radiofrequency non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation on human tissue located close to the ear, say the researchers. And although these results don’t uncover a conclusive “cause and effect” relationship between cellular phone use and cancer, they add to the building evidence that cell phone use may be harmful in the long term, and point to a new direction for further research.
One potential avenue of future research would be to analyze a person’s saliva prior to exposure to a cell phone, and then again after several intense minutes of exposure. This will allow researchers to see if there is an immediate response, such as a rise in molecules that indicate oxidative stress, Dr. Hamzany says.
Biochemical properties of organic tomatoes may be different because of stressful growth conditions
Tomatoes grown on organic farms accumulate higher concentrations of sugars, vitamin C and compounds associated with oxidative stress compared to those grown on conventional farms, according to research published February 20 in the open access journal PLOS ONE by Maria Raquel Alcantara Miranda and colleagues from the Federal University of Ceara, Brazil.
In their study, the researchers compared the weights and biochemical properties of tomatoes from organic and conventional farms. They found that tomatoes grown on organic farms were approximately 40% smaller than those grown by conventional techniques, and they also accumulated more compounds linked to stress resistance.
According to the authors, organic farming exposes plants to greater stress than conventional farming. They suggest that this increased stress may be the reason organic tomatoes had higher levels sugars, vitamin C and pigment molecules like lycopene, an anti-oxidant compound – all of which are associated with the biological response to stress. Based on these observations, the authors suggest that growing strategies for fruits and vegetables should aim to balance plant stress with efforts to maximize yield and fruit size, rather than trying to eliminate stress to increase yields.
Citation: Oliveira AB, Moura CFH, Gomes-Filho E, Marco CA, Urban L, et al. (2013) The Impact of Organic Farming on Quality of Tomatoes Is Associated to Increased Oxidative Stress during Fruit Development. PLOS ONE 8(2): e56354. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056354
Financial Disclosure: Funding was provided by BNB-Fundeci, CAPES-REUNI, and CNPq/INCT – Frutos Tropicais. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing Interest Statement: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
PLEASE LINK TO THE SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE IN ONLINE VERSIONS OF YOUR REPORT (URL goes live after the embargo ends).
2008 Posted for filing
Contact: Heinz-Jörg Haury email@example.com 49-893-187-2460 Helmholtz Zentrum München – German Research Center for Environmental Health
Life processes in cells require a reducing environment that needs to be sustained with the help of a large number of antioxidative enzymes. This may sound abstract and incomprehensible, but everyone knows the phenomenon that a piece of cut apple or a piece of cut meat changes colour quickly and deteriorates, because the oxygen in the air produces chemical reactions in the tissues (oxidation of biomolecules).
If the equilibrium in the organism moves towards oxidative processes, then this is known as oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, for instance, is associated with the aging of body cells. Furthermore, a strong accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with drops in cellular concentrations of glutathione, (GSH), the major antioxidant produced by the body, is well known as a common cause of acute and chronic degenerative diseases, such as, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, stroke, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.
“To investigate the molecular function of the cellular reducing agent GSH in the metabolic pathway of cell death triggered by oxidative stress, mice and cells were generated that specifically lack glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), which is emerging as one of the most important GSH dependent enzymes”, explains Marcus Conrad. The induced inactivation of GPx4 caused massive oxidation of lipids and eventually cell death. A similar phenotype could be observed when intracellular GSH was removed from wild-type cells by a chemical inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis.
Interestingly enough, . Since the oxidation of fatty acids in this cell death pathway, was of paramount importance, multiple studies were performed to describe, in greater detail, the source and nature of lipid peroxides.
Pharmacological and reverse genetic analyses showed that lipid peroxides in GPx4-depleted cells do not appear by coincidence, but accumulate due to increased activity of a specific enzyme of the arachidonic acid metabolism, the 12/15-lipoxygenase. Activation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), evidenced by its relocation from mitochondria to the cell nucleus, was identified as another important event in this signaling cascade.
The fact that oxidative stress is a major inducer of cell death is a well accepted current model. Until now however, the source and nature of the reactive oxygen species has remained obscure, as have questions concerning the way they act. Marcus Conrad: “So far, it was assumed that oxidative stress is detrimental to cells by unspecific oxidation of many essential biomolecules, such as proteins and lipids. That is why we were amazed to find that in cells lacking either glutathione or glutathione peroxidase 4, a distinctive signaling pathway is engaged, which causes cell death. The data represent the first molecular analyses of a redox-regulated signaling pathway, describing how oxidative stress is recognized in the body and translated into cell death”.
Since this cell death cascade can be interrupted at any single stage with the help of drugs, this pathway harbors promising targets for therapeutic intervention to mitigate the deleterious effects of oxidative stress in complex degenerative human diseases.
Alexander Seiler, Manuela Schneider, Heidi Förster, Stephan Roth, Eva K. Wirth, Carsten Culmsee, Nikolaus Plesnila, Elisabeth Kremmer, Olof Rådmark, Wolfgang Wurst, Georg W. Bornkamm, Ulrich Schweizer, and Marcus Conrad: Glutathione Peroxidase 4 Senses and Translates Oxidative Stress into 12/15-Lipoxygenase Dependent- and AIF-Mediated Cell Death. Cell Metabolism 2008 8: 237-248.
Editors Top Five:
1. Substance found in fruits and vegetables reduces likelihood of the flu
2. New study will make criminals sweat
3. Common bronchodilator linked to increased deaths
4. Higher urinary levels of commonly used chemical, BPA, linked with cardiovascular disease, diabetes
5. FDA defends plastic linked with health risks
In this issue:
1. Loss of sleep, even for a single night, increases inflammation in the body
2. Study finds B-vitamin deficiency may cause vascular cognitive impairment
3. Innate immune system targets asthma-linked fungus for destruction
4. New study reveals higher protein breakfast may help dieters stay on track
5. Substance found in fruits and vegetables reduces likelihood of the flu
6. Oxidative Stress: Mechanism of Cell Death Clarified
7. Study shows pine bark naturally reduces knee osteoarthritis
8. Vitamin B12 may protect the brain in old age
9. Fluctuations in serotonin transport may explain winter blues
10. Diet may eliminate spasms for infants with epilepsy
11. Calcium during pregnancy reduces harmful blood lead levels
12. Eating fish while pregnant, longer breastfeeding, lead to better infant development
13. Is yakult helpful in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome?
14. New research could hold the key to keeping older people fit for longer
15. COPD? Eat your veggies
16. Drinking chamomile tea may help fight complications of diabetes
17. Study highlights underlying reasons for why patients are missing their supplementation
18. New study will make criminals sweat
19. Avoid coupon redeemers: Their stigma is contagious (unless they’re attractive)
20. Is re-emerging superbug the next MRSA?
21. Common bronchodilator linked to increased deaths
22. Higher urinary levels of commonly used chemical, BPA, linked with cardiovascular disease, diabetes
23. Expert urges FDA to take action to reduce BPA exposure
24. FDA defends plastic linked with health risks
Health Technology Research Synopsis
39th Issue Date 16 SEP 2008
Compiled By Ralph Turchiano
Department of Neurology, Inonu University, Turgut Ozal Medical Center, 44069 Malatya, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
The widespread use of mobile phones (MP) in recent years has raised the research activities in many countries to determine the consequences of exposure to the low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of mobile phones. Since several experimental studies suggest a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in EMR-induced oxidative damage in tissues, in this study, we investigated the effect of Ginkgo biloba (Gb) on MP-induced oxidative damage in brain tissue of rats.
Rats (EMR+) were exposed to 900 MHz EMR from MP for 7 days (1 h/day). In the EMR+Gb groups, rats were exposed to EMR and pretreated with Gb. Control and Gb-administrated groups were produced by turning off the mobile phone while the animals were in the same exposure conditions. Subsequently, oxidative stress markers and pathological changes in brain tissue were examined for each groups.
Oxidative damage was evident by the: (i) increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in brain tissue, (ii) decrease in brain superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and (iii) increase in brain xanthine oxidase (XO) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities. These alterations were prevented by Gb treatment. Furthermore, Gb prevented the MP-induced cellular injury in brain tissue histopathologically.
Reactive oxygen species may play a role in the mechanism that has been proposed to explain the biological side effects of MP, and Gb prevents the MP-induced oxidative stress to preserve antioxidant enzymes activity in brain tissue