Glucosamine may be linked to lower risk of cardiovascular disease

Glucosamine may be linked to lower risk of cardiovascular disease

Glucosamine may be linked to lower risk of cardiovascular disease

The researchers found that glucosamine use was associated with a 15% lower risk of total CVD events, and a 9% to 22% lower risk of CHD, stroke, and CVD death compared with no use.

Ma Hao, Li Xiang, Sun Dianjianyi, Zhou Tao, Ley Sylvia H, Gustat Jeanette et al. Association of habitual glucosamine use with risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective study in UK Biobank BMJ 2019; 365 :l1628

#glucosamine #heartdisease # cardiovascular

https://www.bmj.com/content/365/bmj.l1628

How much weightlifting is good for the Heart?

How much weightlifting is good for the Heart?

How much weightlifting is good for the Heart?

Lifting weights for less than an hour a week may reduce your risk for a heart attack or stroke by 40 to 70 percent, according to a new Iowa State University study. Spending more than an hour in the weight room did not yield any additional benefit, the researchers found.

Yanghui Liu, Duck-chul Lee, Yehua Li, Weicheng Zhu, Riquan Zhang, Xuemei Sui, Carl J. Lavie, Steven N. Blair. Associations of Resistance Exercise with Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity and Mortality. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2018; 1 DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001822

Following five healthy lifestyle habits may increase life expectancy by decade or more

Following five healthy lifestyle habits may increase life expectancy by decade or more

Researchers also found that U.S. women and men who maintained the healthiest lifestyles were 82% less likely to die from cardiovascular disease and 65% less likely to die from cancer when compared with those with the least healthy lifestyles over the course of the roughly 30-year study period.

Impact of Healthy Lifestyle Factors on Life Expectancies in the US Population
Yanping Li, An Pan, Dong D. Wang, Xiaoran Liu, Klodian Dhana, Oscar H. Franco, Stephen Kaptoge, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Meir Stampfer, Walter C. Willett and Frank B. Hu
Circulation. 2018;CIRCULATIONAHA.117.032047, originally published April 30, 2018

 

Statin Data Criminally Manipulated to Deceive Doctors


Statin Data Criminally Manipulated to Deceive Doctors

= Their paper is an analysis of the data in the statin trials which led them to conclude that “statin advocates have used statistical deception to create the illusion that statins are ‘wonder drugs,’ when the reality is that their modest benefits are more than offset by their adverse effects.”

The paper also describes how the basis of the deception is in how authors of the statin studies present the rate of beneficial and adverse effects. The effect of the drugs on the population is called the ‘absolute risk,’ which has shown that statins benefit only about 1% of the population. This means that only one out of 100 people treated with a statin will have one less heart attack. Statin researchers, however, don’t present the 1% effect to the public. Instead they transform the 1% effect using another statistic, called the “relative risk,” which creates the appearance that statins benefit 30-50% of the population.
* How statistical deception created the appearance that statins are safe and effective in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease
March 2015, Vol. 8, No. 2 , Pages 201-210 (doi:10.1586/17512433.2015.1012494) Continue reading “Statin Data Criminally Manipulated to Deceive Doctors”

Daily Aspirin and younger women a bad mix


Daily Aspirin and younger women a bad mix
– ” they conclude that blanket treatment “is ineffective or harmful in the majority of women with regard to the combined risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and major gastrointestinal bleeding.”
– Cons of regular low-dose aspirin to stave off serious illness in women outweigh pros published online in the journal Heart Dec 2014. Continue reading “Daily Aspirin and younger women a bad mix”

Trans Fats make brain go Hmmm?


Trans fat consumption is linked to diminished memory in working-aged adults
– For those eating the highest amounts of trans fats, this translated to an estimated 11 fewer words (a more than 10 percent reduction in words remembered), compared to adults who ate the least trans fat. (The average number of words correctly recalled was 86.)
* American Heart Association Meeting Report Abstract 15572 NOV 2014 Continue reading “Trans Fats make brain go Hmmm?”

Serious studies on the many risks of statins

I have decided to post a quick data rebuttal, after the publishing of a few misguided headlines (i.e ” Statins have virtually no side-effects, study finds”, and “Give statins to all over-40s, says heart surgery pioneer”, from the London Telegraph ).  This coincides with the wildly unsubstantiated recommendations being presented in prescribing statins . I felt I was left with little choice to link some of the extreme risks associated with statins, that the media somehow forgot to cover. I only had time to post these few, since I am currently working on other projects.

facepalm

It is all about Risk to Benefit Ratio – You have a right to know both. You also have the right to access non industry sponsored peer reviewed studies on the benefits of statins ( #? ), when weighing your options.

Thank you for reading,

Ralph Turchiano – clinicalnews.org

  1. Statins have unexpected effect on pool of powerful brain cells : Reduces Glial progenitor cells
  2. Statins Lower Testosterone, Libido
  3. Long-term effects of statin therapy could lead to transient or permanent cognitive impairment
  4. Most heart attack patients’ cholesterol levels did not indicate cardiac risk: half of the patients with a history of heart disease had LDL cholesterol levels lower than 100 mg/dL
  5. Cure-all? Statins have had no effect on Britain’s heart disease rate, study claims
  6. Cholesterol-drugs cause unusual swellings within neurons resulting in cognitive disturbances
  7. Cholesterol medicine affects energy production in muscles: Up to 75 per cent of patients
  8. Statins: Benefits questionable in low-risk patients
  9. Cholesterol-reducing drugs may lessen brain function, says ISU researcher
  10. New insights into link between anti-cholesterol statin drugs and depression
  11. Cholesterol Lowerings Drugs May Create Manifestations of severe irritability included homicidal impulses, threats to others, road rage, generation of fear in family members, and damage to property.
  12. Wider use of statins ‘disturbing’
  13. Statins being overprescribed for growing number of kidney disease patients / But may Kill faster
  14. Statins risk for women: Taking cholesterol-lowering drug for more than ten years ‘doubles chances of the most common breast cancer’
  15. Statins block the ability of exercise to improve fitness levels
  16. Co-Q10 deficiency may relate to statin drugs, diabetes risk
  17. New insights into link between anti-cholesterol statin drugs and depression
  18. First comprehensive paper on statins’ adverse effects released: Benefits have not been found to exceed their risks in those over 70 or 75 years old, even those with heart disease
  19. Cholesterol Drugs ( Statins ) may contribute to Atherosclerosis
  20. Statins increase risk of postoperative delirium in elderly patients: 28% Increase
  21. Statins are unlikely to prevent blood clots
  22. Relationship between statins and cognitive decline more complex than thought
  23. Statins may increase risk of interstitial lung abnormalities in smokers
  24. Statins show dramatic drug and cell dependent effects in the brain
  25. Muscle damage may be present in some patients taking statins
  26. Millions of patients may be on statins needlessly
  27. Statin warning for pregnant women
  28. Cholesterol-lowering drug linked to sleep disruptions – Possibly promoting weight gain and insulin resistance
  29. Cholesterol-lowering drugs and the effect on muscle repair and regeneration
  30. Study finds association between low cholesterol levels and cancer
  31. ‘Bad’ Cholesterol Not As Bad As People Think, Shows Texas A&M Study Texas A&M News & Information Service
  32. Low cholesterol associated with cancer in diabetics ( cancers of digestive organs and peritoneum, genital and urinary organs, lymphatic and blood tissues )
  33. Cholesterol-lowering drugs and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke

 

 

 

 

 

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Woman who drink 2 or more Diet sodas/fruit juice a day were 30 percent more likely to suffer a cardiovascular event and 50 percent more likely to die from related disease ( by association )

EEV: Reposted from our HRR site
PUBLIC RELEASE DATE:
29-Mar-2014

tumblr_lhxnsqYrbh1qh4vdzo1_500

Too many diet drinks may spell heart trouble for older women

 

Largest study of its kind looks at diet drinks and cardiovascular outcomes, mortality

It appears healthy postmenopausal women who drink two or more diet drinks a day may be more likely to have a heart attack, stroke or other cardiovascular problems, according to research to be presented at the American College of Cardiology’s 63rd Annual Scientific Session.

In fact, compared to women who never or only rarely consume diet drinks, those who consumed two or more a day were 30 percent more likely to suffer a cardiovascular event and 50 percent more likely to die from related disease. Researchers analyzed diet drink intake and cardiovascular risk factors from 59,614 participants in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, making this the largest study to look at the relationship between diet drink consumption, cardiac events and death. Continue reading “Woman who drink 2 or more Diet sodas/fruit juice a day were 30 percent more likely to suffer a cardiovascular event and 50 percent more likely to die from related disease ( by association )”

Scandal of experts who rule on NHS statins but get paid by drugs firms

MOST of the experts who are set to recommend the widespread use of statins next month are in the pay of the drug ­companies that manufacture them.

Published: Sun, March 9, 2014

        

Dr Anthony Wierzbicki Chairman of statin panel has links to drug firms including PfizerDr Anthony Wierzbicki: Chairman of statin panel has links to drug firms including Pfizer [COLLECT]

Any suggestion that medics or officials stand to personally profit from decisions about our care will rightly worry patients  Andrew Gwynne, Shadow Health Minister

The specialists sit on the Government health watchdog, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (Nice).Nice is expected to issue new national advice saying statins, now prescribed to about seven million people a year, should be offered to at least one in four adults.

The move has been criticised by many doctors who say that for many low-risk patients the benefits of statins do not outweigh poss­ible side effects including diabetes, impotence, cataracts, muscle pains, mental impairment, fatigue and liver dysfunction. Continue reading “Scandal of experts who rule on NHS statins but get paid by drugs firms”

CBS This Morning – “Says Supplements no good for the Heart” Silly Silly CBS

Quick rebuttal to the inaccurate statement that nutritional supplements are an ineffective tool against heart disease.

The CBS Doctor Tara Narula reading from a scripted source … Made the inaccurate statement that nutritional supplements have no positive impact on heart health. She made that statement with what appears to be 100% certainty. Which is cool, because it makes it so much easier to discredit… While my objective is not to prove to you that nutritional supplements are the way to go for heart health. My objective is simply to prove beyond 100% certainty that their statements are highly inaccurate as well as misleading. Thank You CBS for making this so easy… 😉

ScreenHunter_220 Feb. 19 10.22

 

A few Links to Confirming Research:

Mayo Clinic proceedings highlights research about cardiovascular benefits of omega-3 fatty acids Continue reading “CBS This Morning – “Says Supplements no good for the Heart” Silly Silly CBS”

Free statins with fast food could neutralize heart risk, scientists say

Public release date: 12-Aug-2010

HRR: This is not humor, this is a real article.

– published in the Sunday 15 August issue of the American Journal of Cardiology 2010

– One statin, simvastatin would cost less than 5p per customer – not much different to a sachet of ketchup.

Confusion Corner
Confusion Corner (Photo credit: Brian Metcalfe)

Fast food outlets could provide statin drugs free of charge so that customers can neutralize the heart disease dangers of fatty food, researchers at Imperial College London suggest in a new study published this week. Continue reading “Free statins with fast food could neutralize heart risk, scientists say”

Treatment by naturopathic doctors shows reduction in cardiovascular risk factors

Contact: Kim Barnhardt kim.barnhardt@cmaj.ca 800-663-7336 x2224 Canadian Medical Association Journal

Randomized controlled trial

Counselling and treatment with naturopathic care as well as enhanced usual care reduced the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a risk factor for heart disease, by 17% over a year for participants in a randomized controlled trial published in CMAJ.

Researchers enrolled 246 members of the Canadian Union of Postal Workers at 3 study sites (Toronto, Vancouver and Edmonton) for a year-long clinical trial to determine whether naturopathic lifestyle counselling helped to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Of the total sample, 207 people completed the study. The control group received enhanced usual care (EUC) and the intervention group received naturopathic care (NC)+EUC at 7 times during the study. Naturopathic doctors provided diet and lifestyle advice for patients to lose between 2.3 and 4.2 kg through a combination of caloric restriction and regular physical exercise, and dispensed natural health products such as omega-3 fatty acids, soluble fibre, coenzyme Q10 and other therapies.

Outcome measures were defined as change in prevalence of metabolic syndrome and a reduction in the Framingham 10-year cardiovascular risk score, a score used to estimate a person’s risk of heart disease.

“Compared with baseline, at one year the treatment group improved and the control group deteriorated across both primary outcomes,” writes Dugald Seely, Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine, Toronto, Ont., and the Ottawa Integrative Cancer Centre, Ottawa, with coauthors.

The researchers found the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a risk factor for heart disease, was reduced by 17% over a year compared with the control group. “This implies that 1 of 6 individuals receiving additional naturopathic care benefit, in comparison to those who do not, by not developing metabolic syndrome over the course of 1 year,” they write. The 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease on the Framingham score decreased by 3 percentage points, “[translating] into about 3 fewer people out of 100 with intermediate risk for cardiovascular disease who are treated with NC+EUC experiencing a serious cardiovascular event such as stroke, heart attack or death during the next 10 years compared with EUC alone,” state the authors.

“Primary health care that provides in-depth counselling around diet and lifestyle is uniquely poised to help comanage metabolic risk factors,” write the authors. “We have shown that naturopathic care is a feasible and potentially effective adjunct to usual medical care in reducing the incidence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk.”

In a related editorial, Dr. Matthew Stanbrook, Deputy Editor, CMAJ, writes that while the design of the study may not specifically prove that the naturopathic intervention was responsible for the effects of the trial, “the results of Seely and colleagues provide proof of principle that some aspects of cardiovascular prevention could feasibly and effectively be delegated to naturopaths.”

He cautions that “some might be tempted to use this trial to justify a conclusion that the nutritional supplements that formed part of naturopaths’ recommendations have now been validated as effective for reducing cardiovascular risk, but that would be inappropriate and potentially misleading. We can learn nothing new from this trial about supplements or any other individual component of care, because the trial was not designed to allow evaluation their evaluation.”

“The core components of the naturopathic intervention included several recommendations about diet and exercise that individually have been well validated scientifically,” writes Dr. Stanbrook. “To the extent that these may have driven the observed cardiovascular risk reductions, one might say that the intervention worked because the naturopaths were, in effect, practising medicine.”

He notes that it is important for medical journals to publish studies like this because they demonstrate an evidence-based approach to naturopathic medicine.

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Chromium picolinate may lessen inflammation in diabetic nephropathy

Contact: Donna Krupa DKrupa@the-aps.org 301-634-7209 American Physiological Society

Supplement linked to decreased protein in the urine of diabetic mice

Bethesda, Md. (September 22, 2010) – Taking chromium picolinate may help lessen inflammation associated with diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease), say researchers at the Medical College of Georgia in Augusta. In a study comparing diabetic mice treated with chromium picolinate with those that received placebo, the researchers found that mice who received the supplement had lower levels of albuminuria (protein in the urine), an indication of kidney disease.

The Study

To arrive at their conclusions, the researchers compared three groups of mice, one lean, healthy group and two groups genetically engineered to be obese and have diabetes. When the mice were 6 weeks old, the researchers separated them according to treatment plan. The healthy mice and one group of diabetic mice, the untreated diabetic group, were fed a regular rodent diet. The remaining group, the treated diabetic group, were fed a diet enriched with chromium picolinate.

Over the course of 6 months, the researchers measured glycemic control and albuminuria in all three groups. The untreated diabetic mice excreted nearly 10 times more albumin than the db/m mice, which was to be expected. However, the treated diabetic mice, who were fed the diet with chromium picolinate, excreted about half as much albumin compared to their untreated diabetic counterparts.

At the end of 6 months, the mice were euthanized and the researchers studied tissue samples from the mice’s kidneys. They found that the untreated diabetic mice had marked immunostaining for interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 17 (IL-17), two cytokines associated with inflammation. These mice also had moderate immunostaining for indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an immunoregulatory enzyme that modulates the production of IL-6 and IL-17. However, the treated diabetic mice had intense immunostaining for IDO but reduced IL-6 and IL-17 compared to the untreated diabetic group. The implication is that the chromium picolinate may have reduced inflammation in the treated diabetic group by affecting IDO, IL-6, and IL-7.

Mahmood Mozaffari, DMD, PhD, professor in the Medical College of Georgia Department of Oral Biology and lead author of the study, noted that the results are preliminary and that further studies are necessary to tease out the effects of chromium picolinate. He is particularly interested in the relationship between IDO and chromium picolinate because IDO is involved in the metabolism of tryptophan, an amino acid, and one of the by-products of that metabolism is picolinic acid.

“This clearly raises an important question for us as to whether our observations are related to the provision of picolinic acid from the chromium picolinate or whether the formulation [chromium picolinate], in and of itself, is mediating the effects.”

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NOTE TO EDITORS: Dr. Mozaffari discussed the study at the 2010 American Physiological Society conference, Inflammation, Immunity, and Cardiovascular Disease, in Westminster Colorado. To arrange an interview with him, please contact Donna Krupa at 301.634.7209 or dkrupa@the-aps.org.

Physiology is the study of how molecules, cells, tissues and organs function to create health or disease. The American Physiological Society (www.The-APS.org/press) has been an integral part of this discovery process since it was established in 1887.

Antioxidants do help arteries stay healthy

2010 study posted for filing

Contact: Graeme Baldwin graeme.baldwin@biomedcentral.com 44-203-192-2165 BioMed Central

Long-term supplementation with dietary antioxidants has beneficial effects on sugar and fat metabolism, blood pressure and arterial flexibility in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Researchers writing in BioMed Central’s open access journal Nutrition and Metabolism report these positive results in a randomized controlled trial of combined vitamin C, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 and selenium capsules.

Reuven Zimlichman worked with a team of researchers from Wolfson Medical Center, Israel, to carry out the study in 70 patients from the centre’s hypertension clinic. He said, “Antioxidant supplementation significantly increased large and small artery elasticity in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. This beneficial vascular effect was associated with an improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism as well as significant decrease in blood pressure”.

Previous results from clinical trials into the cardiovascular health effects of antioxidants have been equivocal. In order to shed more light onto the matter, Zimlichman and his colleagues randomised the 70 patients to receive either antioxidants or placebo capsules for six months. Tests at the beginning of the trial, after three months and at the six month mark revealed that the patients in the antioxidant group had more elastic arteries (a measure of increased cardiovascular health) and better blood sugar and cholesterol profiles. According to Zimlichman, “The findings of the present study justify investigating the overall clinical impact of antioxidant treatment in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors”.

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Notes to Editors

1. Effect of long-term treatment with antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 and selenium) on arterial compliance, humoral factors and inflammatory markers in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Marina Shargorodsky, Ortal Debbi, Zipora Matas and Reuven Zimlichman Nutrition & Metabolism (in press)

During embargo, article available here: http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/imedia/1415754288304238_article.pdf?random=452924

After the embargo, article available at the journal website: http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/

Please name the journal in any story you write. If you are writing for the web, please link to the article. All articles are available free of charge, according to BioMed Central’s open access policy.

Article citation and URL available on request at press@biomedcentral.com on the day of publication.

2. Nutrition & Metabolism is an open access, peer-reviewed, online journal focused on the integration of nutrition, exercise physiology, clinical investigations, and molecular and cellular biochemistry of metabolism.

3. BioMed Central (http://www.biomedcentral.com/) is an STM (Science, Technology and Medicine) publisher which has pioneered the open access publishing model. All peer-reviewed research articles published by BioMed Central are made immediately and freely accessible online, and are licensed to allow redistribution and reuse. BioMed Central is part of Springer Science+Business Media, a leading

Trial results ‘do not support the use of general health checks’ warn experts

Contact: Stephanie Burns
sburns@bmjgroup.com
44-020-738-36920
BMJ-British Medical Journal

Checks have not reduced number of deaths from cardiovascular disease or cancer

Research: General health checks in adults for reducing morbidity and mortality from disease: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

Editorial: The value of conducting periodic health checks

Researchers have found that routine general health checks, which have become common practice in some countries, do not reduce the number of deaths from cardiovascular disease or cancer. They do, however, increase the number of new diagnoses.

Health checks were defined as screening for more than one disease or risk factor in more than one organ system offered to a general population unselected for disease or risk factors.

Health checks were introduced with the intention of reducing morbidity and prolonging life and there are many potential benefits, including: detection of both increased risk factors and precursors to disease (thus preventing cancer from developing); counselling on diet, weight and smoking; reassuring healthy people thus reducing worry about potential disease.

However, screening healthy people can be harmful and can lead to overdiagnosis and overtreatment, a topic which was featured in the BMJ in October. The researchers also point out that invasive diagnostic tests may cause harm. Being labelled as having a disease may also negatively impact healthy people’s views of themselves and their health behaviour.

Few of the individual tests commonly used in health checks have been adequately studied in trials and it is not clear whether they do more harm than good. When tests have been studied in trials, the results have been varied. Authors from the Nordic Cochrane Centre in Denmark therefore carried out a review of a total of 14 trials that looked at systematic health checks. The studies had between 1 and 22 years of follow-up.

Nine of the 14 trials had data on mortality and included 182,880 participants, 11,940 of whom died during the study period. 76,403 were invited to health checks and the remainder were not. All participants were over 18 years old and the study excluded trials specifically targeting older people or trials that only enrolled people aged 65 or over.

Despite some variation regarding the risk of death from cardiovascular disease and cancer, no evidence was found for a reduction of either total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or cancer mortality. Unsurprisingly, the researchers found that health checks led to more diagnoses and more medical treatment for hypertension, although this was infrequently studied.

The lack of beneficial effects indicates that the interventions did not work as intended in the included trials. Health checks are likely to increase the number of diagnoses, but in the absence of benefits, this suggests over-diagnosis and overtreatment.

The researchers also note that people who accept a health check invitation are often different from those who do not, so the checks might not reach those who need prevention the most. Plus, many physicians already carry out testing for cardiovascular risk factors or diseases in patients that they judge to be at risk when they see them for other reasons.

In conclusion, the results do not support the use of general health checks aimed at the general population. The researchers say that further research should “be directed at the individual components of health checks e.g. screening for cardiovascular risk factors, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, or kidney disease”.

In an accompanying editorial, Professor Macauley, Primary Care Editor at the BMJ, agrees that although health checks are “seductive” and “seem sensible” there is little evidence to show that they reduce morbidity and mortality. As well questioning whether they do more harm than good, Dr Macauley says that Krogsbøll and colleagues’ study finds that “regular health checks are ineffective” and show “evidence of little effect” and adds that policy should be based on “wellbeing rather than […] well meant good intentions”.

Low muscle strength in adolescence linked to increased risk of early death

Contact: Stephanie Burns
sburns@bmjgroup.com
44-020-738-36920
BMJ-British Medical Journal

Effect similar to classic risk factors such as weight and blood pressure

Research: Muscular strength in male adolescents and premature death: cohort study of one million participants

Low muscle strength in adolescence is strongly associated with a greater risk of early death from several major causes, suggests a large study published on bmj.com today.

The effect is similar to well established risk factors for early death like being overweight or having high blood pressure, leading the authors to call for young people, particularly those with very low strength, to engage in regular physical activity to boost their muscular fitness.

High body mass index (BMI) and high blood pressure at a young age are known risk factors for premature death, but whether muscular strength in childhood or adolescence can predict mortality is unclear.

So a team of researchers, led by Professor Finn Rasmussen at the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, tracked more than one million Swedish male adolescents aged 16 to 19 years over a period of 24 years.

Participants underwent three reliable muscular strength tests at the start of the study (knee extension strength, handgrip strength and elbow flexion strength). BMI and blood pressure were also measured. Premature death was defined as death before age 55 years.

During the follow-up period, 26,145 participants (2.3% of the group) died. Suicide was the most common cause of death (22.3%) compared with cardiovascular diseases (7.8%) or cancer (14.9%).

High muscular strength was associated with a 20-35% lower risk of early death from any cause and also from cardiovascular diseases, independently of BMI or blood pressure. No association was seen with cancer deaths.

Stronger adolescents also had a 20-30% lower risk of early death from suicide and were up to 65% less likely to have any psychiatric diagnosis, such as schizophrenia and mood disorders. These results suggest that physically weaker individuals might be more mentally vulnerable, say the authors.

In contrast, male adolescents with the lowest level of muscular strength showed the greatest all-cause mortality and also the greatest mortality in cardiovascular disease and suicide before age 55 years.

Death rates from any cause (per 100,000 person years) ranged between 122.3 and 86.9 for weakest and strongest adolescents respectively. Rates for cardiovascular diseases were 9.5 and 5.6 and for suicide were 24.6 and 16.9.

The authors say that low muscular strength in adolescents “is an emerging risk factor for major causes of death in young adulthood, such as suicide and cardiovascular diseases.” The effect sizes of these associations “are similar to classic risk factors such as body mass index and blood pressure,” they add.

They suggest that muscular strength tests, in particular handgrip strength, could be assessed with good reliability in almost any place, including clinical settings, schools and workplaces.

They also support the need for regular physical activity in childhood and adolescence, saying: “People at increased risk of long term mortality, because of lower muscular strength, should be encouraged to engage in exercise programmes and other forms of physical activity.”

Plant-Based Diets Can Remedy Chronic Diseases

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 63 percent of the deaths that occurred in 2008 were attributed to non-communicable chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, Type 2 diabetes and obesity—for which poor diets are contributing factors. Yet people that live in societies that eat healthy, plant-based diets rarely fall victim to these ailments. Research studies have long indicated that a high consumption of plant foods is associated with lower incidents of chronic disease. In the October issue of Food Technology magazine, Senior Writer/Editor Toni Tarver discusses recent discoveries in nutritional genomics that explain how plant-based diets are effective at warding off disease.

October 17, 2012

CHICAGO—According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 63 percent of the deaths that occurred in 2008 were attributed to non-communicable chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, Type 2 diabetes and obesity—for which poor diets are contributing factors. Yet people that live in societies that eat healthy, plant-based diets rarely fall victim to these ailments. Research studies have long indicated that a high consumption of plant foods is associated with lower incidents of chronic disease. In the October issue of Food Technology magazine, Senior Writer/Editor Toni Tarver discusses recent discoveries in nutritional genomics that explain how plant-based diets are effective at warding off disease.
The article indicates that bioactive compounds in plant foods play a role in controlling genetic and other biological factors that lead to chronic disease. For example, antioxidants in plant foods counter free radicals that can cause chronic inflammation and damage cells. And other plant compounds help control a gene linked to cardiovascular disease and plaque buildup in arteries and the genes and other cellular components responsible for forming and sustaining tumors.
William W. Li, M.D., President and Medical Director of the Angiogenesis Foundation in Cambridge, Mass., says that all consumers should look at their diets as if food is the medicine necessary to maintain healthy, disease-free lives. “Prevention is always better than a cure,” said Li. Foods that may help prevent cancer and other chronic diseases include artichokes, black pepper, cinnamon, garlic, lentils, olives, pumpkin, rosemary, thyme, watercress, and more.  For a more comprehensive list of medicinal foods, read “The Chronic Disease Food Remedy” in the October 2012 issue of Food Technology.

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About IFT For more than 70 years, IFT has existed to advance the science of food. Our nonprofit scientific society—more than 18,000 members from more than 100 countries—brings together food scientists, technologists and related professions from academia, government, and industry. For more information, please visit ift.org.

Beta-Blocker Use NOT Associated With Lower Risk of Cardiovascular Events: They May Not Work

Beta-Blocker Use Not Associated With Lower Risk of Cardiovascular Events

ScienceDaily (Oct. 2, 2012) — Among patients with either coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors only, known prior heart attack, or known CAD without heart attack, the use of beta-blockers was not associated with a lower risk of a composite of cardiovascular events that included cardiovascular death, nonfatal heart attack or nonfatal stroke, according to a study in the October 3 issue of JAMA.

“Treatment with beta-blockers remains the standard of care for patients with coronary artery disease, especially when they have had a myocardial infarction [MI; heart attack]. The evidence is derived from relatively old post-MI studies, most of which antedate modern reperfusion or medical therapy, and from heart failure trials, but has been widely extrapolated to patients with CAD and even to patients at high risk for but without established CAD. It is not known if these extrapolations are justified. Moreover, the long-term efficacy of these agents in patients treated with contemporary medical therapies is not known, even in patients with prior MI,” according to background information in the article.

Sripal Bangalore, M.D., M.H.A., of the NYU School of Medicine, New York, and colleagues conducted a study to evaluate the association between beta-blocker use and long-term cardiovascular outcomes. The observational study included data from patients in the Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) registry. From this registry, 44,708 patients met the study inclusion criteria of whom 14,043 patients (31 percent) had prior MI, 12,012 patients (27 percent) had documented CAD but without MI, and 18,653 patients (42 percent) had CAD risk factors only. The last follow-up data collection was April 2009. The primary outcome for this study was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, or nonfatal stroke. The secondary outcome was the primary outcome plus hospitalization for atherothrombotic events or a revascularization procedure. The overall median (midpoint) follow-up was 44 months. Among the 44,708 patients in the study, 21,860 were included in the propensity score-matched analysis.

The researchers found that in the prior MI group, the event rates were not significantly different among those with beta-blocker use (489 [16.93 percent]) vs. those without beta-blocker use (532 [18.60 percent]) for the primary outcome, or the secondary outcome (30.96 percent vs. 33.12 percent, respectively). In the CAD without MI cohort, the event rates were not different in those with beta-blocker use (391 [12.94 percent]) vs. those without p-blocker use (405 [13.55 percent]) for the primary outcome, for cardiovascular death, for stroke, and for MI. The event rates were higher in those with beta-blocker use (1,101 [30.59 percent] vs. those without beta-blocker use (1,002 [27.84 percent]) for the secondary outcome and for hospitalization in the propensity score-matched model.

In the risk factors alone group, the event rates were higher in those with beta-blocker use (467 [14.22 percent] vs. those without beta-blocker use (403 [12.11 percent]) for the primary outcome, for the secondary outcome (870 [22.01 percent] vs. 797 [20.17 percent], respectively) but not for MI or stroke. In the propensity score-matched model, there were similar event rates for cardiovascular death and for hospitalization.

The researchers also found that among patients with recent MI (one year or less), beta-blocker use was associated with a lower incidence of the secondary outcome.

“Among patients enrolled in the international REACH registry, beta-blocker use was not associated with a lower event rate of cardiovascular events at 44-month follow-up, even among patients with prior history of MI. Further research is warranted to identify subgroups that benefit from beta-blocker therapy and the optimal duration of beta-blocker therapy,” the authors conclude.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/10/121002161753.htm

Study suggests possible association between cardiovascular disease, chemical exposure

Contact: Amy Johns johnsa@wvuhealthcare.com 304-293-1412 JAMA and Archives Journals

CHICAGO – Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a manmade chemical used in the manufacture of some common household products, appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease and peripheral arterial disease in a study of 1,216 individuals, according to a report published Online First by Archives of Internal Medicine, a JAMA Network publication.

Surveys have suggested that PFOA (widely used in the manufacture of products such as lubricants, polishes, paper and textile coatings, and food packaging) is detectable in the blood of more than 98 percent of the U.S. population. Some evidence has suggested that an association may be biologically plausible between PFOA exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD), according to the study background.

“Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major public health problem. Identifying novel risk factors for CVD, including widely prevalent environmental exposures, is therefore important,” according to the study background.

Anoop Shankar, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues from the West Virginia University School of Public Health, Morgantown, examined the association between serum (blood) levels of PFOA and the presence of CVD and PAD, a marker of atherosclerosis, in a nationally representative group of adults. The study used merged data from the 1999-2000 and 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

The study suggests that increasing serum PFOA levels were positively associated with the presence of CVD and PAD, and the association appeared to be independent of confounders such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and serum cholesterol level, the authors comment.

“Our results contribute to the emerging data on health effects of PFCs [perfluoroalkyl chemicals], suggesting for the first time that PFOA exposure is potentially related to CVD and PAD. However, owing to the cross-sectional nature of the present study, we cannot conclude that the association is causal,” the authors comment.

Compared with the reference level of PFOA in quartile 1, the multivariable odds ratio among participants in quartile 4 was 2.01 for CVD and 1.78 for PAD, according to the results.

“In summary, in a representative cross-sectional sample of the U.S. population, we found that higher PFOA levels are positively associated with self-reported CVD and objectively measured PAD. Our findings, however, should be interpreted with caution because of the possibility of residual confounding and reverse causality. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm or refute our findings,” the authors conclude.

(Arch Intern Med. Published online September 3, 2012. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3393. Available pre-embargo to the media at http://media.jamanetwork.com.)

Editor’s Note: This study was supported by a National Clinical Research Program grant from the American Heart Association and grants from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health. Please see the article for additional information, including other authors, author contributions and affiliations, financial disclosures, funding and support, etc.

Commentary: Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure, Cardiovascular Disease

In a commentary, Debabrata Mukherjee, M.D., M.S., of Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, writes: “These results contribute to the evolving data on the adverse health effects of PFOA, suggesting that PFOA exposure may be potentially related to CVD.”

“However, a major limitation is the cross-sectional nature of the study. Given this significant limitation, causality or the temporal nature of the association between PFOA and CVD cannot be concluded from the current analysis,” Mukherjee continues.

“Although it seems clear that additional prospective research is needed to tease out the true adverse cardiovascular effects of PFOA, given the concerns raised by this and prior studies, clinicians will need to act now. From a societal point of view, it would make sense to limit or to eliminate the use of PFOA and its congeners in industry through legislation and regulation while improving water purification and treatment techniques to try and remove this potentially toxic chemical from our water supply,” Mukherjee concludes.

(Arch Intern Med. Published online September 3, 2012. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3397. Available pre-embargo to the media at http://media.jamanetwork.com.)

Editor’s Note: Please see the article for additional information, including other authors, author contributions and affiliations, financial disclosures, funding and support, etc.

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To contact Anoop Shankar, M.D., Ph.D., call Amy Johns at 304-293-1412 or email johnsa@wvuhealthcare.com. To contact commentary author Debabrata Mukherjee, M.D., M.S., call Laura Gallegos at 915-309-5647 or email laura.gallegos@ttuhsc.edu.

Link shown between environmental toxicants and atherosclerosis

Environmental toxicants such as dioxins, PCBs, and pesticides can pose a risk for cardiovascular disease. For the first time a link has been demonstrated between atherosclerosis and levels of long-lived organic environmental toxicants in the blood. The study, carried out by researchers at Uppsala University, is being published online this week in ahead of print in the prestigious journal Environmental Health Perspectives.

Cardiovascular diseases, including heart attacks and strokes, are the most common cause of death in industrialized countries, and the most important underlying cause of these diseases is atherosclerosis. Unbalanced blood fats, diabetes, smoking, and high blood pressure are traditionally recognized risk factors for atherosclerosis.

Previous studies have also reported possible links between cardiovascular disease and high levels of persistent (long-lived and hard-to-degrade) organic environmental toxicants, such as dioxins, PCBs, and pesticides. These compounds are fat-soluble and can therefore accumulate in vessel walls. However, no earlier studies have investigated possible links between exposure to these compounds and atherosclerosis.

The current study measured the circulating levels of the above group of compounds in about 1,000 Swedes living in Uppsala. Atherosclerosis in the carotid artery was also measured using ultrasound.

The findings show a clear connection between increasing levels of environmental toxicants and atherosclerosis, even after taking into consideration the traditional risk factors. There was also a link to tangible signs of fat accumulation in vessel walls.

“These findings indicate that long-lived organic environmental toxicants may be involved in the occurrence of atherosclerosis and thereby lead to future death from cardiovascular diseases,” says Lars Lind, professor at the Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.

“In Sweden, and in many countries in the world, many of these substances are forbidden today, but since they are so long-lived they’re still out there in our environment. We ingest these environmental toxicants with the food we eat, and since they are stored in our bodies, the levels grow higher the older we get,” says Monica Lind, Associate Professor in Environmental Medicine at Occupational and Environmental Medicine

These researchers are now going on to study how these compounds affect atherosclerosis in experimental models. They are also going to monitor the individuals included in their study to determine whether a direct connection exists between exposure to these substances and the occurrence of heart attacks and strokes in humans

Researchers surprised to find fatty liver disease poses no excess risk for death

Condition prevalent among those with heart disease and obesity

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common condition associated with obesity and heart disease long thought to undermine health and longevity. But a new study by Johns Hopkins researchers suggests the condition does not affect survival.

A report on the study was published online last week in BMJ, the British medical journal.

“Physicians have considered fatty liver disease a really worrisome risk factor for cardiovascular disease,” says study leader Mariana Lazo, M.D., Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine’s Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research. “Our data analysis shows this doesn’t appear to be the case. We were surprised to say the least because we expected to learn by how much non-alcoholic fatty liver disease increased the risk of death and instead found the answer was not at all.”

Using health information collected from 11,371 Americans between 1994 and 1998 and followed for up to 18 years as part of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), the researchers checked liver enzyme levels and ultrasound tests for evidence of NAFLD, and ultimately looked at death rates associated with NAFLD. The participants ranged in age from 20 to 74 during the data collection years. Because the ultrasounds were originally taken to assess gallbladder health, Lazo and colleagues from Johns Hopkins looked at each recording to determine the presence of fat in each person’s liver. People whose livers are 5 percent fat or more are considered to have NAFLD.

The Johns Hopkins team found no increase in mortality among those with NAFLD, which was identified in approximately 20 percent of the NHANES participants. At the end of the follow-up period, mortality from all causes was 22 percent, or 1,836 individuals. Cardiovascular disease was the cause of death for 716 participants, cancer for 480 and liver disease for 44.

Although the researchers found no increase in deaths, Lazo says further study is needed to determine whether more advanced NAFLD has serious long-term consequences for the liver, a vital organ that turns what we eat and drink into nutrients and filters harmful substances from the blood.

NAFLD, which some researchers have called the nation’s next epidemic, is characterized by the liver’s inability to break down fats and fatty build up in the organ.  Found in roughly one in three Americans, it is most prevalent in those who are obese, and those with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The spectrum of disease ranges from simple fat build-up to inflammation to the scarring and poor liver function that characterize cirrhosis. Chronic liver disease has long been associated with long-term alcohol consumption, but as the name suggests, NAFLD is found in those who are not heavy drinkers.

“We don’t yet know why mortality is not affected or whether there might be some actual protective effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” she says, “but it looks like the liver’s ability to accumulate fat may somehow shield the body from the detrimental effects of other health problems such as obesity and diabetes,” she says.

There is no treatment for NAFLD, other than lifestyle changes, including weight loss, and only a liver biopsy can determine how serious NAFLD is. Lazo says she hopes new methods are developed that more easily identify more advanced stages of NAFLD, which may not be harmless.

Still, she says, her research suggests that with respect to long-term survival of people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, “it may not matter if you have the disease or not.”

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The research was supported by grants from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Diseases and the American Diabetes Association.

Other Johns Hopkins researchers involved in the study include Ruben Hernaez, M.D., Ph.D.; Susanne Bonekamp, Ph.D.; Ihab R. Kamel, M.D., Ph.D.; Frederick L. Brancati, M.D.; Eliseo Guallar, M.D., M.P.H.; and Jeanne M. Clark, M.D., M.P.H.

For more information:http://www.jhsph.edu/welchcenter/