40% Greater Muscle Building Response from Whole Eggs Than From Egg Whites

40% Greater Muscle Building Response from Whole Eggs Than From Egg Whites

40% Greater Muscle Building Response from Whole Eggs Than From Egg Whites

Researchers were astounded when they discovered that whole eggs stimulated a muscle building response 40% greater than egg whites.

Consumption of whole eggs promotes greater stimulation of post exercise muscle protein synthesis than consumption of isonitrogenous amounts of egg whites in young men. First published October 4, 2017, doi: 10.3945/​ajcn.117.159855 Am J Clin Nutr December 2017 vol. 106 no. 6 1401-1412

Psychological side-effects of anti-depressants worse than thought

– While the biological side-effects of antidepressants, such as weight gain and nausea, are well documented, the psychological and interpersonal effects have been largely ignored or denied. They appear to be alarmingly common.”

–  suffering from ‘sexual difficulties’ (62%) – ‘feeling emotionally numb’ (60%) – ‘feeling not like myself’ (52%) – ‘reduction in positive feelings’ (42%) – ), ‘caring less about others’ (39%)

– Over half of people aged 18 to 25 in the study reported suicidal feelings

– However, 82% reported that the drugs had helped alleviate their depression

happy pills
happy pills (Photo credit: mikdisseny)

LIVERPOOL, UK – 26 February 2014: A University of Liverpool researcher has shown that thoughts of suicide, sexual difficulties and emotional numbness as a result of anti-depressants may be more widespread than previously thought.

In a survey of 1,829 people who had been prescribed anti-depressants, the researchers found large numbers of people – over half in some cases – reporting on psychological problems due to their medication, which has led to growing concerns about the scale of the problem of over-prescription of these drugs. Continue reading “Psychological side-effects of anti-depressants worse than thought”

Cocaine doesn’t just curb appetite, it suppresses the body’s ability to store fat too, find scientists

EEV: Science sometimes is not politically correct. This is in no way a promotion of drugs. In addition there are very deadly side effects as well as a nasty rebound effect.

 

  • Previously  thought coke caused loss because it suppressed the appetite
  • But a new  study found that the class A drug prevents fat storage
  • However the  slimming effect stops when users stop taking the drug
  • Some people  are thought to relapse because they are upset by the weight gain caused  abstinence

By  Daily Mail Reporter

PUBLISHED: 08:43 EST, 9  August 2013 |  UPDATED: 08:43 EST, 9 August 2013

Taking cocaine prevents the body storing fat,  new research has revealed.

Previously experts believed cocaine users  were slim because the class A drug was suppressing their  appetites.

The new research, by scientists at the  University of Cambridge, also found that the slimming effects stop when users  ‘go clean’ and that this can lead to dramatic weight gain.

Taking cocaine prevents the body storing fat, new research has revealed 

Taking cocaine prevents the body storing fat, new  research has revealed

The findings support theories that  body-conscious drug users sometimes relapse because they become so unhappy at  gaining weight when they stop taking cocaine.

Dr Karen Ersche, from the Behavioural and  Clinical Neuroscience Institute at the University of Cambridge, compared 30  cocaine-dependent men to 30 healthy ones.

She found that cocaine users actually choose  worse diets than healthy men – opting to eat fatty foods and carbohydrates – but  that they lose weight regardless.

Meanwhile, levels of appetite-controlling  hormone leptin in the drug-users’ bodies were cut leading to severe  over-eating.

Previously experts believed cocaine users were slim because the class A drug was suppressing their appetites 

Previously experts believed cocaine users were slim  because the class A drug was suppressing their appetites

Researchers believe the habitual  overeating,  and poor diet, only confound the weight-gain when users’  metabolisms slow when  they come off the drug.

Dr Ersche said: ‘We were surprised how little  body fat the cocaine users  had in light of their reported consumption of fatty  food.

‘It seems that regular cocaine abuse directly  interferes with metabolic processes and thereby reduces body fat.

‘This imbalance between fat intake and fat  storage may also explain why these individuals gain so much weight when they  stop using cocaine.

‘For most people, weight gain is unpleasant  but for people in recovery, who can gain several stone, this weight gain goes  far beyond an aesthetic concern but involves both psychological and  physiological problems.

‘The stress caused by this conspicuous body  change can also contribute to relapse.

‘It is therefore important that we better  understand the effects of cocaine on eating behaviour and body weight to best  support drug users on their road to recovery.

‘Notable weight gain following cocaine  abstinence is not only a source of major personal suffering but also has  profound implications for health and recovery.

‘Intervention at a sufficiently early stage  could have the potential to prevent weight gain during recovery, thereby  reducing personal suffering and improving the chances of  recovery.’

The research was published in the August  edition of the scientific journal, Appetite.

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2387739/Cocaine-doesnt-just-curb-appetite-suppresses-bodys-ability-store-fat-scientists.html#ixzz2bU8QY4mx Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Princeton researchers find that high-fructose corn syrup prompts considerably more weight gain

2010 study posted for filing

Contact: Kitta MacPherson
kittamac@princeton.edu
609-258-5729
Princeton University

A sweet problem

IMAGE:A Princeton University research team, including (from left) undergraduate Elyse Powell, psychology professor Bart Hoebel, visiting research associate Nicole Avena and graduate student Miriam Bocarsly, has demonstrated that rats with…

Click here for more information. 

A Princeton University research team has demonstrated that all sweeteners are not equal when it comes to weight gain: Rats with access to high-fructose corn syrup gained significantly more weight than those with access to table sugar, even when their overall caloric intake was the same.

In addition to causing significant weight gain in lab animals, long-term consumption of high-fructose corn syrup also led to abnormal increases in body fat, especially in the abdomen, and a rise in circulating blood fats called triglycerides. The researchers say the work sheds light on the factors contributing to obesity trends in the United States.

“Some people have claimed that high-fructose corn syrup is no different than other sweeteners when it comes to weight gain and obesity, but our results make it clear that this just isn’t true, at least under the conditions of our tests,” said psychology professor Bart Hoebel, who specializes in the neuroscience of appetite, weight and sugar addiction. “When rats are drinking high-fructose corn syrup at levels well below those in soda pop, they’re becoming obese — every single one, across the board. Even when rats are fed a high-fat diet, you don’t see this; they don’t all gain extra weight.”

In results published online March 18 by the journal Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, the researchers from the Department of Psychology and the Princeton Neuroscience Institute reported on two experiments investigating the link between the consumption of high-fructose corn syrup and obesity.

The first study showed that male rats given water sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup in addition to a standard diet of rat chow gained much more weight than male rats that received water sweetened with table sugar, or sucrose, in conjunction with the standard diet. The concentration of sugar in the sucrose solution was the same as is found in some commercial soft drinks, while the high-fructose corn syrup solution was half as concentrated as most sodas.

IMAGE:When male rats were given water sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup in addition to a standard diet of rat chow, the animals gained much more weight than male rats that…

Click here for more information. 

The second experiment — the first long-term study of the effects of high-fructose corn syrup consumption on obesity in lab animals — monitored weight gain, body fat and triglyceride levels in rats with access to high-fructose corn syrup over a period of six months. Compared to animals eating only rat chow, rats on a diet rich in high-fructose corn syrup showed characteristic signs of a dangerous condition known in humans as the metabolic syndrome, including abnormal weight gain, significant increases in circulating triglycerides and augmented fat deposition, especially visceral fat around the belly. Male rats in particular ballooned in size: Animals with access to high-fructose corn syrup gained 48 percent more weight than those eating a normal diet. In humans, this would be equivalent to a 200-pound man gaining 96 pounds.

“These rats aren’t just getting fat; they’re demonstrating characteristics of obesity, including substantial increases in abdominal fat and circulating triglycerides,” said Princeton graduate student Miriam Bocarsly. “In humans, these same characteristics are known risk factors for high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, cancer and diabetes.” In addition to Hoebel and Bocarsly, the research team included Princeton undergraduate Elyse Powell and visiting research associate Nicole Avena, who was affiliated with Rockefeller University during the study and is now on the faculty at the University of Florida. The Princeton researchers note that they do not know yet why high-fructose corn syrup fed to rats in their study generated more triglycerides, and more body fat that resulted in obesity.

High-fructose corn syrup and sucrose are both compounds that contain the simple sugars fructose and glucose, but there at least two clear differences between them. First, sucrose is composed of equal amounts of the two simple sugars — it is 50 percent fructose and 50 percent glucose — but the typical high-fructose corn syrup used in this study features a slightly imbalanced ratio, containing 55 percent fructose and 42 percent glucose. Larger sugar molecules called higher saccharides make up the remaining 3 percent of the sweetener. Second, as a result of the manufacturing process for high-fructose corn syrup, the fructose molecules in the sweetener are free and unbound, ready for absorption and utilization. In contrast, every fructose molecule in sucrose that comes from cane sugar or beet sugar is bound to a corresponding glucose molecule and must go through an extra metabolic step before it can be utilized.

This creates a fascinating puzzle. The rats in the Princeton study became obese by drinking high-fructose corn syrup, but not by drinking sucrose. The critical differences in appetite, metabolism and gene expression that underlie this phenomenon are yet to be discovered, but may relate to the fact that excess fructose is being metabolized to produce fat, while glucose is largely being processed for energy or stored as a carbohydrate, called glycogen, in the liver and muscles.

In the 40 years since the introduction of high-fructose corn syrup as a cost-effective sweetener in the American diet, rates of obesity in the U.S. have skyrocketed, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In 1970, around 15 percent of the U.S. population met the definition for obesity; today, roughly one-third of the American adults are considered obese, the CDC reported. High-fructose corn syrup is found in a wide range of foods and beverages, including fruit juice, soda, cereal, bread, yogurt, ketchup and mayonnaise. On average, Americans consume 60 pounds of the sweetener per person every year.

“Our findings lend support to the theory that the excessive consumption of high-fructose corn syrup found in many beverages may be an important factor in the obesity epidemic,” Avena said.

The new research complements previous work led by Hoebel and Avena demonstrating that sucrose can be addictive, having effects on the brain similar to some drugs of abuse.

In the future, the team intends to explore how the animals respond to the consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in conjunction with a high-fat diet — the equivalent of a typical fast-food meal containing a hamburger, fries and soda — and whether excessive high-fructose corn syrup consumption contributes to the diseases associated with obesity. Another step will be to study how fructose affects brain function in the control of appetite.

 

###

 

The research was supported by the U.S. Public Health Service.

Radio and TV News Broadcasts: Princeton University maintains at its Broadcast Center on campus both an ISDN line for conducting radio interviews with its faculty and experts and also a state-of-the-art, high definition video studio for conducting TV interviews with members of its campus community. The radio service is available during regular business hours free of charge to representatives of news organizations, while the TV studio is available to the news media on a fee basis. For more information, please: e-mail bctv@princeton.edu; call (609) 258-7872; or visit the center’s website at http://www.princeton.edu/bc/.

For Princeton University breaking news, visit: www.princeton.edu.

141st Health Research Report 02 NOV 2012

 

Editors Top Five:

 

1. Study: Flame Retardant ‘Firemaster 550’ Is an Endocrine Disruptor (Major Weight Gain)

2. Feinstein Institute researchers discover that bean used in Chinese food could protect against sepsis

3. Drop in testosterone tied to prostate cancer recurrence

4. Study suggests too much risk associated with SSRI usage and pregnancy

5. Researchers discover watching horror films can help you burn equivalent of a chocolate bar, with The Shining burning most

 

 

 

 

In this issue:

 

1. Task Force Recommends Against Hormone Replacement Therapy for Postmenopausal Women

2. Antibiotics not effective for cough due to ‘common cold’ in children

3. Exercise may trump mental activity in protecting against brain shrinkage

4. Selenium deficiency may cause cardiomyopathy post-gastric bypass

5. Crusty foods may worsen heart problems associated with diabetes

6. New vitamin-based treatment that could reduce muscle degeneration in muscular dystrophy

7. Study: Flame Retardant ‘Firemaster 550’ Is an Endocrine Disruptor (Major Weight Gain)

8. Scripps Research Institute Study Suggests Caution and Further Studies on Drugs Used to Treat Macular Degeneration

9. Researchers develop cocktail of bacteria that eradicates Clostridium difficile infection

10. Feinstein Institute researchers discover that bean used in Chinese food could protect against sepsis

11. Drop in testosterone tied to prostate cancer recurrence

12. Exercise is smart for your heart – and makes you smarter

13. New study reveals that every single junk food meal damages your arteries

14. Common food preservative may slow, even stop tumor growth

15. Study suggests too much risk associated with SSRI usage and pregnancy

16. Men who do exercise produce better quality semen

17. Green tea found to reduce rate of some GI cancers

18. Researchers discover watching horror films can help you burn equivalent of a chocolate bar, with The Shining burning most

Health Research Report

141st Issue Date 02 NOV 2012

Compiled By Ralph Turchiano

www.healthresearchreport.me www.vit.bz

www.youtube.com/vhfilm www.facebook.com/engineeringevil

www.engineeringevil.com

 

High Fructose Sets Table For Weight Gain Without Warning: Leptin Resistance

2008 study posted for filing

 

Common sweetener found in many foods leads to leptin resistance  and exacerbates obesity when paired with high-calorie, high-fat diet

 

BETHESDA, Md. (Oct. 16, 2008) – Eating too much fructose can induce leptin resistance, a condition that can easily lead to becoming overweight when combined with a high-fat, high-calorie diet, according to a new study with rats.

 

Although previous studies have shown that being leptin resistant can lead to rapid weight gain on a high-fat, high-calorie diet, this is the first study to show that leptin resistance can develop as a result of high fructose consumption. The study also showed for the first time that leptin resistance can develop silently, that is, with little indication that it is happening.

 

The study, “Fructose-induced leptin resistance exacerbates weight gain in response to subsequent high-fat feeding,” was carried out by Alexandra Shapiro, Wei Mu, Carlos Roncal, Kit-Yan Cheng, Richard J. Johnson and Philip J. Scarpace, all at the University of Florida College of Medicine in Gainesville. The study appears in the American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, published by The American Physiological Society.

 

Leptin as regulator

 

Leptin is a hormone that plays a role in helping the body to balance food intake with energy expenditure. When leptin isn’t working — that is, when the body no longer responds to the leptin it produces — it’s called leptin resistance. Leptin resistance is associated with weight gain and obesity in the face of a high-fat, high-calorie diet.

 

Obesity has been a growing problem in the U.S. and in other parts of the world and fructose has been suspected of playing a role. Fructose is the sugar found in fruit, but it’s not the normal consumption of fruit that is the problem. Table sugar and high-fructose corn syrup are about 50% fructose and these ingredients have become increasingly common in many foods and beverages. With sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being added to many foods, people now eat much more fructose than ever before.

 

The University of Florida researchers hypothesized that a high-fructose diet could lead to leptin resistance, which in turn could lead to exacerbated weight gain in the face of a high-fat, high-calorie diet, a typical diet in industrialized countries. To test their hypothesis, the research team performed a study with two groups of rats. They fed both groups the same diet, with one important exception: one group consumed a lot of fructose while the other received no fructose.

 

Two groups similar over six months

 

During these six months, there were no differences in food intake, body weight, and body fat between rats on the high-fructose and the rats on the fructose-free diets. In addition, there was no difference between the two groups in the levels of leptin, glucose, cholesterol or insulin found in their blood. There was only one difference at the end of the six months: The rats on the high-fructose diet had higher levels of triglycerides in their blood.

 

The researchers next tested the animals to see if they were leptin resistant. They injected all the animals with leptin, to see if they would respond by eating less. Animals whose leptin response is functioning normally will lower their food intake. The researchers discovered that the rats on the high-fructose diet were leptin resistant, that is, they did not lower their food intake when given leptin. The no-fructose animals responded normally to leptin by eating less.

 

This first six months of the study showed that leptin resistance can develop silently. “Usually, leptin resistance is associated with obesity, but in this case, leptin resistance developed without obesity,” Shapiro said. “This was very surprising.”

 

Role of diet

 

Having seen that leptin resistance could develop silently, the researchers next wanted to find out what would happen if they switched the rats to a high-fat, high-calorie diet — the kind many Americans eat. They found that the animals exposed to the high-fructose diet, the leptin resistant rats, ate more and gained much more weight and fat than the leptin responsive animals on the fructose-free diet. All told, this study showed that leptin resistance can:

 

develop by eating a lot of fructose

 

develop silently, that is, with very little indication it is happening

 

result in weight gain when paired with a high fat, calorie dense diet

 

Scarpace said the study suggests it is the interaction between consumption of large amounts of fructose-containing foods and eating a high-fat, high-calorie diet that produces the weight gain. “This study may explain how the global increase in fructose consumption is related to the current obesity epidemic,” Shapiro said.

 

How it happens

 

Other studies have shown that elevated triglycerides impair the transport of leptin across the blood brain barrier. The researchers hypothesize that the elevation in triglycerides produced by fructose prevented leptin from reaching the brain. If leptin does not reach the brain, the brain will not send out the signal to stop eating.

 

“The presence of high fructose alters the way leptin works, fooling the brain so that it ignores leptin,” Scarpace said. Consumers should be cautious about what they eat, checking labels to see how much sugar the items contain, Shapiro said.

 

The researchers hope to perform future studies to find out if leptin resistance can be reversed by removing or reducing the fructose content of the diet.

Back to school: Is higher education making you fat?

Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism

17 September 2012

Ottawa, Canada – A new study published today in the journal  Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism (APNM)  looks beyond the much-feared weight gain common to first-year students and reports on the full 4-year impact of higher education on weight, BMI, and body composition.

“Gropper et al. present a unique study that follows students through their undergraduate years. It documents the nature of the weight gain and shows the differences between males and females,” says Susan Whiting, a professor of nutrition and dietetics at the University of Saskatchewan.

“While dozens of studies have investigated weight gain during the freshman year of college and have reported on the so called “freshman 15” (the commonly held belief that students gain an average of 15 lbs their first year of college), our study is the first to examine changes in weight, body mass index, body composition, and body shape over the 4-year college period,” explains Sareen Gropper, a co-author of the study and researcher at Auburn University in Alabama.

The study followed 131 college students from the beginning of their first year to the end of their senior year. After 4 years in college about 70% of students had gained weight, which averaged at 5.3 kg, or  11.68 lbs; males gained significantly more weight, percent body fat , and BMI than females;  and the percentage of participants considered overweight or obese increased from 18% to 31%.

“College and university students are often living away from home; they do not have a parent grocery shopping or preparing food for them.  They can be distracted from their health by their studies and by extracurricular activities,” says Terry Graham, Editor of APNM, and a professor in the Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences at the University of Guelph.  “While one can alter their body composition at anytime by tipping the balance of energy intake and expenditure, this investigation demonstrates how important the years of early adulthood can be in this aspect. After 4 years, the changes are quite substantial even though the daily, weekly, and even monthly responses are subtle.  This study highlights that students need to make healthy choices and also that the institutions need to take steps to facilitate these decisions.”

Gropper agrees, “Our findings clearly suggest the need for additional campus-based health promotion strategies for students from the freshman year through their senior year of college.”

The paper “Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students”, published in the journal Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, is available Open Access at http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/full/10.1139/h2012-139

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Corresponding author: Sareen Gropper Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Hospitality Management Auburn University Email:  groppss@auburn.edu

Media Contact (Publisher): Jenny Ryan NRC Research Press (Canadian Science Publishing) Email:  jenny.ryan@nrcresearchpress.com Phone: 613-949-8667

Full Reference:

Sareen S. Gropper, Karla P. Simmons, Lenda Jo Connell, and Pamela V. Ulrich. Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 37(6) doi: 10.1139/h2012-139.

A video abstract is available for this paper: http://youtu.be/qjRFWxMZTzs

Disclaimer Canadian Science Publishing publishes the NRC Research Press suite of journals but is not affiliated with the National Research Council of Canada.  Papers published by Canadian Science Publishing are peer-reviewed by experts in their field.  The views of the authors in no way reflect the opinions of Canadian Science Publishing or the National Research Council of Canada.  Requests for commentary about the contents of any study should be directed to the authors.

Having a tonsillectomy can cause Obesity

Contact: David March
dmarch1@jhmi.edu
410-955-1534
Johns Hopkins Medicine

Age, not underlying diagnosis, key factor in weight gain in children after tonsillectomy

Potentially worrisome weight gains following tonsillectomy occur mostly in children under the age of 6, not in older children, a study by Johns Hopkins experts in otolaryngology- head and neck surgery shows.

Sudden increases in body mass index, or BMI, have been routinely observed for months after some of the more than half-million surgeries performed annually in the United States to remove the sore and swollen tissues at the back of the throat.

The Johns Hopkins study, in 115 children in the Baltimore region, is believed to be the first to dispel long-held beliefs that such weight gains occurred mostly in children whose tonsils were removed as primary treatment for diagnosed sleep apnea, when the swollen, paired tissues partially obstruct breathing and disrupt sleep. It is also believed to be the largest study to analyze weight gain specific to every child’s age group, from 1 through 17.

Although researchers have yet to pinpoint the underlying cause of the weight-gain phenomena, they did find that it happened at the same rate in the 85 children who had the surgery for obstructive sleep apnea as in the 30 who had it due to recurrent episodes of tonsil inflammation.

Senior study investigator, otolaryngologist and sleep medicine expert Stacey Ishman, M.D., M.P.H., says her team’s study findings, scheduled to be presented Sept. 12 at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgeons in Washington, D.C., should help alleviate rising concerns among many parents whose adolescent children are already overweight that tonsillectomy may aggravate the problem; or start one in normal weight kids. Recent surveys have shown that record numbers of American children, as many as one-third, are overweight or obese.

“Our study results show that parents’ current concerns about weight gain are serious, but only underweight or normal weight children between the ages of 2 and 6 are most likely to gain even more weight, not older children,” says Ishman, an assistant professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

“Parents with overweight adolescent children need not fear tonsillectomy, and those with younger, normal weight and overweight children just really need to closely watch their child’s diet following surgery, and make caloric adjustments,” says Ishman, who has performed hundreds of the roughly 30-minute procedures that typically require a general anesthetic.

In the study, researchers analyzed the medical records of children between the ages of 6 months and 18 years who had had their tonsils removed at the Johns Hopkins Outpatient Center between 2008 and 2011. Researchers looked only at those medical records for children who had been routinely examined for at least six months after their procedure, with detailed measurements of any possible weight gain, which were averaged and compared based on a formula involving age, gender and height. All also had a history of recurrent tonsillitis or obstructive sleep apnea, as strictly determined by an individual sleep study analysis.

Results showed an averaged post-surgical weight gain of 2 to 5 pounds – or a 1.0- to 1.2-point increase in averaged BMI scores—but the gains were not dependent on whether the underlying condition was inflammation or sleep apnea. Only age mattered, researchers say, after discounting gender and height.

Ishman says that while such weight gains might appear small, in these children’s small bodies, whose initial weight was between 22 and 60 pounds (or between 10 to 30 kilos), “a 10 percent weight gain can be quite worrisome.”

Results showed a normal weight, 5-year-old boy, weighing 40 pounds (or 18 kilos) and measuring 42 inches tall, who gained 3 pounds after tonsillectomy, would move from the 68th percentile to the 89th percentile in their age-weight group, and become overweight. For an underweight 5-year-old boy of similar height, originally weighing 34 pounds (15 kilos), the same 3-pound weight gain would shift them from the 24th percentile group to the 28th percentile, moving them closer to a normal weight.

However, she says, in an overweight 10-year-old boy, already weighing 90 pounds (41 kilos) and 55 inches tall, there was no weight gain post tonsillectomy, and he remained in the 92nd percentile group, meaning his poor condition did not worsen.

Ishman says her team’s next steps are to gain a better understanding of why and how children’s age affects weight gain post-tonsillectomy. She already has plans to monitor children immediately after surgery to find out what factors or interventions may help underweight children gain pounds, while helping those who are overweight to not get any bigger.

Since 2002 tonsillectomy has been recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics as the primary treatment for obstructive sleep apnea, as sleeping aids and drug therapies are not as effective. Studies have shown that if left untreated, sleep apnea can lead to long-term health problems, including increased heart and lung diseases, even death.

 

###

 

Funding support for this study was provided by The Johns Hopkins Hospital.

In addition to Ishman, other Johns Hopkins researchers involved in this study were David Smith, M.D., Ph.D., and Emily Boss, M.D., M.P.H. Other study co-investigators included Ami Vikani, B.S., at the George Washington University School of Medicine, in Washington, D.C.; and Fernando Aguirre-Amezquita, M.D., at Escuela de Medicina Ignacio A. Santos de Monterrey, in Mexico.

For more information, go to:
http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/otolaryngology/our_team/faculty/ishman.html
http://www.entannualmeeting.org/12/

Princeton researchers find that high-fructose corn syrup prompts considerably more weight gain: rats became obese by drinking high-fructose corn syrup, but not by drinking sucrose

Contact: Kitta MacPherson kittamac@princeton.edu 609-258-5729 Princeton  University

A sweet problem

IMAGE:A Princeton University research team, including (from left) undergraduate Elyse Powell, psychology professor Bart Hoebel, visiting research associate Nicole Avena and graduate student Miriam Bocarsly, has demonstrated that rats with…Click here for more information.

A Princeton University research team has demonstrated that all sweeteners are not equal when it comes to weight gain: Rats with access to high-fructose corn syrup gained significantly more weight than those with access to table sugar, even when their overall caloric intake was the same.

In addition to causing significant weight gain in lab animals, long-term consumption of high-fructose corn syrup also led to abnormal increases in body fat, especially in the abdomen, and a rise in circulating blood fats called triglycerides. The researchers say the work sheds light on the factors contributing to obesity trends in the United States.

“Some people have claimed that high-fructose corn syrup is no different than other sweeteners when it comes to weight gain and obesity, but our results make it clear that this just isn’t true, at least under the conditions of our tests,” said psychology professor Bart Hoebel, who specializes in the neuroscience of appetite, weight and sugar addiction. “When rats are drinking high-fructose corn syrup at levels well below those in soda pop, they’re becoming obese — every single one, across the board. Even when rats are fed a high-fat diet, you don’t see this; they don’t all gain extra weight.”

In results published online March 18 by the journal Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, the researchers from the Department of Psychology and the Princeton Neuroscience Institute reported on two experiments investigating the link between the consumption of high-fructose corn syrup and obesity.

The first study showed that male rats given water sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup in addition to a standard diet of rat chow gained much more weight than male rats that received water sweetened with table sugar, or sucrose, in conjunction with the standard diet. The concentration of sugar in the sucrose solution was the same as is found in some commercial soft drinks, while the high-fructose corn syrup solution was half as concentrated as most sodas.

IMAGE:When male rats were given water sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup in addition to a standard diet of rat chow, the animals gained much more weight than male rats that…Click here for more information.

The second experiment — the first long-term study of the effects of high-fructose corn syrup consumption on obesity in lab animals — monitored weight gain, body fat and triglyceride levels in rats with access to high-fructose corn syrup over a period of six months. Compared to animals eating only rat chow, rats on a diet rich in high-fructose corn syrup showed characteristic signs of a dangerous condition known in humans as the metabolic syndrome, including abnormal weight gain, significant increases in circulating triglycerides and augmented fat deposition, especially visceral fat around the belly. Male rats in particular ballooned in size: Animals with access to high-fructose corn syrup gained 48 percent more weight than those eating a normal diet. In humans, this would be equivalent to a 200-pound man gaining 96 pounds.

“These rats aren’t just getting fat; they’re demonstrating characteristics of obesity, including substantial increases in abdominal fat and circulating triglycerides,” said Princeton graduate student Miriam Bocarsly. “In humans, these same characteristics are known risk factors for high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, cancer and diabetes.” In addition to Hoebel and Bocarsly, the research team included Princeton undergraduate Elyse Powell and visiting research associate Nicole Avena, who was affiliated with Rockefeller University during the study and is now on the faculty at the University of Florida. The Princeton researchers note that they do not know yet why high-fructose corn syrup fed to rats in their study generated more triglycerides, and more body fat that resulted in obesity.

High-fructose corn syrup and sucrose are both compounds that contain the simple sugars fructose and glucose, but there at least two clear differences between them. First, sucrose is composed of equal amounts of the two simple sugars — it is 50 percent fructose and 50 percent glucose — but the typical high-fructose corn syrup used in this study features a slightly imbalanced ratio, containing 55 percent fructose and 42 percent glucose. Larger sugar molecules called higher saccharides make up the remaining 3 percent of the sweetener. Second, as a result of the manufacturing process for high-fructose corn syrup, the fructose molecules in the sweetener are free and unbound, ready for absorption and utilization. In contrast, every fructose molecule in sucrose that comes from cane sugar or beet sugar is bound to a corresponding glucose molecule and must go through an extra metabolic step before it can be utilized.

This creates a fascinating puzzle. The rats in the Princeton study became obese by drinking high-fructose corn syrup, but not by drinking sucrose. The critical differences in appetite, metabolism and gene expression that underlie this phenomenon are yet to be discovered, but may relate to the fact that excess fructose is being metabolized to produce fat, while glucose is largely being processed for energy or stored as a carbohydrate, called glycogen, in the liver and muscles.

In the 40 years since the introduction of high-fructose corn syrup as a cost-effective sweetener in the American diet, rates of obesity in the U.S. have skyrocketed, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In 1970, around 15 percent of the U.S. population met the definition for obesity; today, roughly one-third of the American adults are considered obese, the CDC reported. High-fructose corn syrup is found in a wide range of foods and beverages, including fruit juice, soda, cereal, bread, yogurt, ketchup and mayonnaise. On average, Americans consume 60 pounds of the sweetener per person every year.

“Our findings lend support to the theory that the excessive consumption of high-fructose corn syrup found in many beverages may be an important factor in the obesity epidemic,” Avena said.

The new research complements previous work led by Hoebel and Avena demonstrating that sucrose can be addictive, having effects on the brain similar to some drugs of abuse.

In the future, the team intends to explore how the animals respond to the consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in conjunction with a high-fat diet — the equivalent of a typical fast-food meal containing a hamburger, fries and soda — and whether excessive high-fructose corn syrup consumption contributes to the diseases associated with obesity. Another step will be to study how fructose affects brain function in the control of appetite.

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The research was supported by the U.S. Public Health Service.

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