College enrolment down by a half million students in 2012 with older students the most turned off further studies

  • Half a million fewer students enrolled in  colleges in 2012 than 2011
  • Biggest drop is in mature students ages  25 and older
  • However, there has been an increase in  the number of Hispanics enrolling
  • Hispanics account for 17 percent of the  student population, up from 11 percent in 2006

By  Daily Mail Reporter

PUBLISHED: 19:17 EST, 3  September 2013 |  UPDATED: 19:20 EST, 3 September 2013

College enrolment in 2012 dropped by a half  million students compared to the year before.

Figures released by the U.S. Census Bureau  also show the number students who are over the age of 25 also fell.

There are 419,000 fewer students that have  enrolled at universities across the country.

College dropoff: The number of U.S. university students declined by almost half a million last year, following years of growth
College dropoff: The number of U.S. university students  declined by almost half a million last year, following years of growth

Conversely, there has been an increase in  college enrollments with  3.2 million new students entering classrooms  between 2006 and 2011.

Enrollment by Hispanics in U.S. colleges rose  15 percent from 2011 to 2012 even as the overall college population  declined.

Nearly 3.4 million Hispanics enrolled in  college undergraduate or graduate programs in 2012, as the adult Hispanic  population grew and because of greater demand from within the ethnic group, the  bureau said.

Hispanic students have grown as a percentage  of the overall college student population from 11 percent in 2006 to 17 percent  in 2012.

On the rise: Enrollment by Hispanics in U.S. colleges rose 15 percent from 2011 to 2012 even as the overall college population declined
On the rise: Enrollment by Hispanics in U.S. colleges  rose 15 percent from 2011 to 2012 even as the overall college population  declined

‘This increase in the number of Hispanics  enrolled in college can be attributed to the combination of an increase in the  adult Hispanic population and their climbing likelihood of being enrolled,’  Julie Siebens, a statistician for the Census Bureau, said in a  statement.

The Census Bureau report, titled School  Enrolment: 2012, is the latest in a series of studies that seem to show that  older people who fled to colleges and universities during tough economic times  might be heading back into the workforce.

President Barack Obama took a two-day tour in  late August to campaign for college affordability, stopping at locations in New  York and Pennsylvania.

Among other initiatives, Obama pushed for a  college rating system that would help students and their parents determine which  colleges would provide the best return for their tuition dollars.

‘We’ve got a crisis in terms of college  affordability and student debt,’ Obama said during a stop at the State  University of New York at Buffalo. ‘We can’t price the middle class, and  everybody working to get into the middle class, out of an education.’

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Chewing gum could make you FAT because the minty taste makes sugary food more tempting

  • The  chemical responsible for the minty flavour in gum makes healthy food  unappealing
  • People who  chew gum eat fewer meals – but not less calories – because they chose unhealthy  foods

By  Emma Innes

PUBLISHED: 08:59 EST, 29  March 2013 |  UPDATED: 08:59 EST, 29 March 2013



It may  well give you minty-fresh breath, but chewing gum could also cause weight gain,  new research suggests.

Scientists have discovered that people who  chew gum eat more high calorie sweet foods.

This is because the chemical responsible for  the minty flavour of gum makes savoury foods, especially fruit and vegetables,  taste unpleasant.

Co-author of the study, Christine Swoboda, a  doctoral candidate in nutrition at Ohio State University, told LiveScience: ‘The chemical  change is the same reason why when you brush your teeth and then drink orange  juice, it tastes bad.

Scientists have discovered that people who chew gum eat more high-calorie, sweet foodsScientists have discovered that people who chew gum eat  more high-calorie, sweet foods

‘We were also interested in seeing whether  this helps with weight loss.’

To carry out the study, Ms Swoboda and her  colleague Jennifer Temple of the University of Buffalo, enrolled 44  volunteers.

Each candidate was asked to play a game in  exchange for food.

Some played for pieces of fruit, while others  played for crisps and sweets.

Before taking part in the experiment, half of  the volunteers had chewed either fruit gum or mint gum.

It was discovered that those who had chewed  mint flavoured gum were significantly less likely to play for as long to win  fruit as they were to win the junk food.

Those who had been eating fruit flavoured gum  were also found to be less interested in the fruit but the results were not as  conclusive.

The researchers also discovered that people  who chew gum tend to eat fewer  meals  – but that this does not translate  to fewer calories.

People who chew gum tend to eat fewer meals but that this does not translate to fewer calories 

People who chew gum tend to eat fewer meals but that  this does not translate to fewer calories

They determined this in a second experiment  during which the volunteers were asked to keep a food diary.

For  part of the time, the volunteers were asked to chew mint gum before meals, while  for the rest of the time they were simply asked to note down their food  intake.

The food diaries showed that while chewing  gum, people ate fewer meals but that they did not consume fewer calories as a  result.

Ms Swoboda said that the explanation could be  that the menthol in mint interacts with nutrients in fruits and vegetables to  create a bitter flavour and that this was making healthy foods seem  unappealing.

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Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency associated with a ( 43 Fold ) increase in MS

2009 study posted for filing

Neurologists Investigate Possible New Underlying Cause of MS (43 FOLD Increase)

UB neurologist Robert Zivadinov is principal investigator on a new study that could change understanding of MS.

BUFFALO, NY – Neurologists at the University at Buffalo are beginning a research study that could overturn the prevailing wisdom on the cause of multiple sclerosis (MS).

The researchers will test the possibility that the symptoms of MS result from narrowing of the primary veins outside the skull, a condition called “chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency,” or CCSVI.

CCSVI is a complex vascular condition discovered and described by Paolo Zamboni, M.D., from Italy’s University of Ferrara. In the original Italian patients, CCSVI was found to be strongly associated with MS, increasing the risk of developing MS by 43 fold.


This narrowing restricts the normal outflow of blood from the brain, causing alterations in the blood flow patterns within the brain that eventually causes injury to brain tissue and degeneration of neurons.

“If we can prove our hypothesis, that cerebrospinal venous insufficiency is the underlying cause of MS,” said Robert Zivadinov, M.D., Ph.D., UB associate professor of neurology, director of the Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center (BNAC) and principal investigator on the study, “it is going to change the face of how we understand MS.”

Michael Cain, M.D., professor and dean of the UB School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, said a positive outcome from this trial would have enormous implications for the treatment of MS. “Being able to identify those at risk of developing MS before symptoms take their toll could change the lives of millions of persons who now face inevitable lifestyle restrictions.”

Margaret Paroski, M.D., executive vice president and chief medical officer of Kaleida Health, parent of Buffalo General Hospital where the BNAC is located, commented: “Will Rogers once said, ‘It isn’t what we don’t know that gives us trouble, it’s what we do know that ain’t so’. Challenging basic assumptions about diseases has lead to some very important discoveries.

“When I was in medical school, we thought peptic ulcer disease was due to stress. We now know that 80 percent of cases are due to a bacterial infection. Dr. Zivadinov’s work may lead to a whole different way of thinking about multiple sclerosis.”

The preliminary findings were based on a pilot study at the BNAC headed by Zivadinov, and at the Universities of Ferrara and Bologna, Italy, directed by Zamboni and Fabrizio Salvi, M.D, respectively. The study showed that several abnormalities affecting the predominant pathways that return venous blood from the brain to the heart occurred more frequently in MS patients than in controls.

This research, supported by the Hilarescere Foundation of Italy and the BNAC, was conducted to replicate the findings of the Italian investigators.

“Results of this preliminary study, which involved 16 relapsing-remitting MS patients and eight age-and-sex-matched healthy controls, showed that all the MS patients, but none of the controls, had chronic insufficient blood flow out of the brain,” said Zivadinov.

Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, M.D., UB associate professor of neurology and a co-principal investigator on the pilot study, added: “The images from this study were acquired using a method called Doppler ultrasound. The method identified anomalies in the venous blood flow associated with strictures, malformed valves and peculiar webs within the large veins of the neck and brain”

Weinstock-Guttman directs the Baird Multiple Sclerosis Center at the Jacobs Neurological Institute (JNI), UB’s Department of Neurology. The JNI and BNAC are located in Buffalo General Hospital of Kaleida Health.

Advanced magnetic resonance imaging scanning (MRI) of the MS study patients conducted at the BNAC also identified distinct areas of iron deposits in the brain, and showed that those deposits may be associated with the location of MS lesions and sites of impaired drainage. The scans also revealed increased brain atrophy and changes in the flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the MS patients.

These results, which form the basis of the current larger investigation, were presented at the 25th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis held in September in Dusseldorf, Germany

The new study will involve 1,600 adults and 100 children. The cohort will be comprised of 1,100 patients who were diagnosed with possible or definite MS, 300 age-and-sex matched normal controls, and 300 patients with other autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. Enrollment in the study has begun and will continue for two years. MS patients from across the U.S. are eligible to participate in the study.

“The prevailing wisdom that central nervous system damage in MS is predominantly the result of abnormal immune responses against the patient’s nervous tissue has been challenged by research findings, which have demonstrated a significant neurodegenerative component in MS and the progressive loss of neurons” said Zivadinov.

However, these inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes occur concurrently in MS and vary considerably among patients, making it difficult to identify the cause, or causes of the disease. Consequently, the origin and development of MS remains poorly understood, and its cause remains elusive.”

To determine if these preliminary findings can be repeated, Zivadinov and Weinstock-Guttman organized the present study, which will evaluate both the velocity of blood flow through both the brain’s blood vessels and the extracranial veins, using Doppler ultrasound.

The technical name of the study is “combined transcranial and extracranial venous Doppler (CTEVD) evaluation in MS and related diseases”.

All study subjects will undergo a general clinical examination and a Doppler scan of the head and neck to acquire images of the direction of venous blood flow in different body postures. Participants also will provide blood samples, and complete an extensive environmental questionnaire to identify potential MS risk factors.

All MS patients will undergo MRI of the brain to measure iron deposits in lesions and surrounding areas of the brain using a method called susceptibility-weighted imaging. Iron findings on these images will be related to neuropsychological symptoms. The neuropsychological part of the study will be conducted by Ralph Benedict, Ph.D., professor of neurology and psychiatry at the JNI, UB’s Department of Neurology.

A sub-cohort of 250 consecutive patients and controls will undergo MRI of the veins of the neck to confirm diagnosis of CCSVI.

Murali Ramanathan, Ph.D., associate professor in the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UB School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, will analyze blood samples for proteins and soluble factors associated with central nervous system injury. He also will be looking for other factors of interest in MS research, such as vitamin D metabolites and cigarette smoking, which have been linked to increased risk for developing MS as well as MS disease progression.

The data will be unblinded at three predetermined time-points, with the initial unblinding scheduled for November 2009. For more details on the study, send an email to

Zivadinov said results of the study may lead to a larger multicenter North-American trial that will evaluate the occurrence of CCSVI in MS.

Obese Teen Boys Have Up to 50 Percent Less Testosterone than Lean Boys, UB Study Finds

Results send “grim message” that obese teen males may become impotent, infertile adults

Release Date: October 12, 2012

BUFFALO, N.Y. — A study by the University at Buffalo shows for the first time that obese males ages 14 to 20 have up to 50 percent less total testosterone than do normal males of the same age, significantly increasing their potential to be impotent and infertile as adults.

The paper was published online as an accepted article in Clinical Endocrinology.

The authors are the same researchers in the University at Buffalo’s School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences who first reported in 2004 the presence of low testosterone levels, known as hypogonadism, in obese, type 2 diabetic adult males and confirmed it in 2010 in more than 2,000 obese men, both diabetic and nondiabetic.

“We were surprised to observe a 50 percent reduction in testosterone in this pediatric study because these obese males were young and were not diabetic,” says Paresh Dandona, MD, PhD, SUNY Distinguished Professor in the Department of Medicine, chief of the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism in the UB medical school and first author on the study. “The implications of our findings are, frankly, horrendous because these boys are potentially impotent and infertile,” says Dandona. “The message is a grim one with massive epidemiological implications.”

The paper is available at

The small study included 25 obese and 25 lean males and was controlled for age and level of sexual maturity. Concentrations of total and free testosterone and estradiol, an estrogen hormone, were measured in morning fasting blood samples. The results need to be confirmed with a larger number of subjects, Dandona says.

“These findings demonstrate that the effect of obesity is powerful, even in the young, and that lifestyle and nutritional intake starting in childhood have major repercussions throughout all stages of life,” he says.

In addition to the reproductive consequences, the absence or low levels of testosterone that were found also will increase the tendency toward abdominal fat and reduced muscle, Dandona says, leading to insulin resistance, which contributes to diabetes.

“The good news is that we know that testosterone levels do return to normal in obese adult males who undergo gastric bypass surgery,” says Dandona. “It’s possible that levels also will return to normal through weight loss as a result of lifestyle change, although this needs to be confirmed by larger studies.”

The UB researchers now intend to study whether or not weight loss accomplished either through lifestyle changes or through pharmacological intervention will restore testosterone levels in obese teen males.

Co-authors with Dandona are Muniza Mogri, MD, a medical resident in the UB Department of Pediatrics, Sandeep Dhindsa, MD, clinical assistant professor of medicine at UB; Husam Ghanim, PhD, research assistant professor of medicine; and Teresa Quattrin, MD, A. Conger Goodyear Professor and chair of the Department of Pediatrics, housed in Women and Children’s Hospital of Buffalo.


[ photograph ]“These findings demonstrate that the effect of obesity is powerful, even in the young,” says UB’s Dandona, who led the research.

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Ellen Goldbaum

716-645-4605 twitter @egoldbaum

Favorite TV Reruns May Have Restorative Powers, says UB Researcher


[ photograph ]Jaye Derrick, PhD, research scientist at UB’s Research Institute on Addictions

Contact Sara Sald    716-645-4593

Release Date: September  6, 2012

BUFFALO, N.Y. — We hear all the time that we need to get off the couch, stop watching TV and get moving.

But what if watching TV under specific conditions could actually provide the mental boost you need to tackle a difficult task?

A new paper that describes two studies by Jaye Derrick, PhD, research scientist at the University at Buffalo’s Research Institute on Addictions, found that watching a rerun of a favorite TV show may help restore the drive to get things done in people who have used up their reserves of willpower or self-control.

“People have a limited pool of these valuable mental resources,” explains Derrick.  “When they use them on a task, they use up some of this limited resource. Therefore, they have less willpower and self-control for the next task.

“With enough time, these mental resources will return. However, there may be ways to more quickly restore them.”

One of these ways is to re-watch your favorite TV show, Derrick’s research found.  Doing so, she says, taps into the surrogate relationship people form with the characters in their favorite shows.  We find it comforting, mainly because we already know what the characters are going to say and do.  All we have to do is sit back and enjoy it.

“When you watch a favorite re-run, you typically don’t have to use any effort to control what you are thinking, saying or doing.  You are not exerting the mental energy required for self-control or willpower,” Derrick explains.  “At the same time, you are enjoying your ‘interaction,’ with the TV show’s characters, and this activity restores your energy.”

In the first of her two studies published in the journal Social Psychological and Personality Science, Derrick asked half of the participants to complete a structured task which required concentrated effort. The other half were asked to complete a similar but less structured task that allowed them more freedom and required much less effort.

Then half of the participants were asked to write about their favorite television show while the other half listed items in their room (a “neutral” task).

Following this, the participants were tested to measure any reduction or renewal of willpower.

Those who wrote about their favorite television show (rather than listing items in their room) wrote for longer if they had done the structured task than if they had done the less-structured task. This, Derrick says, indicates these participants were seeking out their favorite TV shows and they wanted to spend more time thinking about them.

And writing about their favorite television show restored their energy levels and allowed them to perform better on a difficult puzzle.

In the second study, participants did a daily diary study. They reported on their effortful tasks, media consumption and energy levels each day. If they had to do effortful tasks, they were more likely to seek out a re-run of their favorite television show, to re-watch a favorite movie or to re-read a favorite book. Doing so, then restored their energy levels.

“In other words, there was a measurable restorative effect from a familiar fictional world,” Derrick finds.

But that doesn’t mean people should veg-out in front of any TV show.

“The restorative effect I found is specific to re-watching favorite television shows (or re-watching favorite movies or re-reading favorite books),” Derrick says.  “Just watching whatever is on television does not provide the same benefit.  And perhaps surprisingly, watching a new episode of a favorite television show for the first time does not provide the same benefit.”

Derrick explains that there is something special and comfortable about a “relationship” in which you already know what the other person is going to say and do, and all you have to do is sit there and enjoy it.

In fact, the effects of this fictional “social surrogacy” may work better than actual social interaction with real people under some circumstances.

“Although there are positive outcomes to social interaction such as a sense of feeling of being energized,” says Derrick, “human exchanges can also produce a sense of rejection, exclusion and ostracism, which may diminish willpower.”

Derrick’s findings may dispel some notions that watching TV is bad for us.

“Based on my research, I would argue that watching television is not all bad. While there is a great deal of research demonstrating that violent television can increase aggression, and watching television may be contributing to the growing obesity epidemic, watching a favorite television show can provide a variety of benefits, which may enhance overall wellbeing,” she says.

Derrick’s new research will expand on these findings and examine other social consequences of television.

“I have found, for example, that favorite television shows can actually increase people’s pro-social behavior. Specifically, after thinking about a favorite television show, people are more willing to forgive others, are more willing to help a stranger and are more willing to sacrifice for their romantic partner,” she says