We are led to question whether the recommended social distancing measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission could increase the number of other serious instabilities. The breaking of the contagion pathways reduces the sharing of microorganisms between people, thus favoring dysbiosis, which, in turn, may increase the poor prognosis of the disease. #covid #microbiome #dysbiosis Célia P. F. Domingues, João S. Rebelo, Francisco Dionisio, Ana Botelho, Teresa Nogueira. The Social Distancing Imposed To Contain COVID-19 Can Affect Our Microbiome: a Double-Edged Sword in Human Health. mSphere, 2020; 5 (5) DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00716-20 https://msphere.asm.org/content/5/5/e00716-20
A specific concentration of honeybee venom can induce 100% cancer cell death, while having minimal effects on normal cells.
“We found that melittin can completely destroy cancer cell membranes within 60 minutes.”
#melittin #honeybeevenom #cancer
Ciara Duffy, Anabel Sorolla, Edina Wang, Emily Golden, Eleanor Woodward, Kathleen Davern, Diwei Ho, Elizabeth Johnstone, Kevin Pfleger, Andrew Redfern, K. Swaminathan Iyer, Boris Baer, Pilar Blancafort. Honeybee venom and melittin suppress growth factor receptor activation in HER2-enriched and triple-negative breast cancer. npj Precision Oncology, 2020; 4 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41698-020-00129-0
The combination of the nanoparticles and immunotherapy made the tumours disappear entirely and, as a result, works as a vaccine for lung and colon cancer – the two types that were investigated in the study. To confirm their finding, the researchers injected tumour cells back into the mice. These cells were immediately eliminated by the immune system, which was on the lookout for any new, similar, cells invading the body.
#copper #cancer #immunotherapy
Hendrik Naatz, Bella B. Manshian, Carla Rios Luci, Vasiliki Tsikourkitoudi, Yiannis Deligiannakis, Johannes Birkenstock, Suman Pokhrel, Lutz Mädler, Stefaan J. Soenen. Model-Based Nanoengineered Pharmacokinetics of Iron-Doped Copper Oxide for Nanomedical Applications. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2020; DOI: 10.1002/anie.201912312
The publication reports on a new target: a dopamine receptor. The authors found that the receptor is unique to lung and liver fibroblasts. Stimulating it blocks YAP and TAZ, reducing and reversing the growth and scar-forming abilities of fibroblasts. Stimulating the dopamine receptor in fibroblasts appeared to switch them from a matrix-depositing state that supports fibrosis to a matrix-degrading state that supports resolution or reversal of fibrosis. In lung and liver fibrosis models, the approach reversed the fibrotic process in these organs.
#fibrosis #dopamine #treatment
Selective YAP/TAZ inhibition in fibroblasts via dopamine receptor D1 agonism reverses fibrosis: ANDREW J. HAAK, ENIS KOSTALLARI, DELPHINE SICARD, GIOVANNI LIGRESTI, KYOUNG MOO CHOI, NUNZIA CAPORARELLO, DAKOTA L. JONES, QI TAN, JEFFREY MERIDEW, ANA M. DIAZ ESPINOSA, AJA ARAVAMUDHAN, JESSICA L. MAIERS, RODNEY D. BRITT, JR., ANJA C. RODEN, CHRISTINA M. PABELICK, Y. S. PRAKASH, SEYED MEHDI NOURAIE, XIAOYUN LI, YINGZE ZHANG, DANIEL J. KASS, DAVID LAGARES, ANDREW M. TAGER, XARALABOS VARELAS, VIJAY H. SHAH, DANIEL J. TSCHUMPERLIN Science Translational Medicine 30 Oct 2019: Vol. 11, Issue 516, eaau6296 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aau6296
Lung Function Decline Dramatically Slowed with a Flavonoid
Previous research has shown that the plant-produced chemicals known as flavonoids have beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Anthocyanins, the type of flavonoid investigated in the current study, have been detected in lung tissue shortly after being ingested, and in animals models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The plant chemicals appear to reduce mucus and inflammatory secretions.
Dietary Intake of Anthocyanin Flavonoids and Ten Year Lung Function Decline in Adults from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) V. Garcia Larsen, R. Villegas, E.R. Omenaas, C. Svanes, J. Garcia-Aymerich, P.G.J. Burney, D. Jarvis, and ECRHS Diet Working Group B23. ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN ASTHMA. May 1, 2018, A2797-A2797
Anthocyanin, Flavonoids, COPD, FEV1, FVC, lung, Lung Age, Lung Decline, Lung Function, Remedy, Food
Lung Scarring Reversed
In an unexpected discovery scientists witnessed fibrosis going into remission and the lungs begin to normalize function in only 4 weeks, with the introduction of RAGE into the cells.
Homeostatic nuclear RAGE–ATM interaction is essential for efficient DNA repair Nucleic Acids Research, Volume 45, Issue 18, 13 October 2017, Pages 10595–10613, DOI:10.1093/nar/gkx705
2010 study posted for filing
This release is available in Chinese.
An analysis that included nearly 400,000 participants finds that those with higher blood levels of vitamin B6 and the essential amino acid methionine (found in most protein) had an associated lower risk of lung cancer, including participants who were current or former smokers, according to a study in the June 16 issue of JAMA.
Previous research has suggested that deficiencies in B vitamins may increase the probability of DNA damage and subsequent gene mutations. “Given their involvement in maintaining DNA integrity and gene expression, these nutrients have a potentially important role in inhibiting cancer development, and offer the possibility of modifying cancer risk through dietary changes,” the authors write. They add that deficiencies in nutrient levels of B vitamins have been shown to be high in many western populations.
Paul Brennan, Ph.D., of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, and colleagues conducted an investigation of B vitamins and methionine status based on serum samples from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study, which recruited 519,978 participants from 10 European countries between 1992 and 2000, of whom 385,747 donated blood. By 2006, 899 lung cancer cases were identified and 1,770 control participants were individually matched by country, sex, date of birth, and date of blood collection.
After an analysis of the incidence rate of lung cancer within the entire EPIC cohort and adjusting for various factors, the researchers found a lower risk for lung cancer among participants with increasing levels of B6 (comparing the fourth vs. first quartile of B6 levels). A lower risk was also seen for increasing methionine levels. “Similar and consistent decreases in risk were observed in never, former, and current smokers, indicating that results were not due to confounding [factors that can influence outcomes] by smoking. The magnitude of risk was also constant with increasing length of follow-up, indicating that the associations were not explained by preclinical disease,” the researchers write.
When participants were classified by median (midpoint) levels of serum methionine and B6, having above-median levels of both was associated with a lower lung cancer risk overall. A moderate lower risk was observed for increasing serum folate levels, although this association was restricted to former and current smokers, and was not apparent in never smokers.
“Our results suggest that above-median serum measures of both B6 and methionine, assessed on average 5 years prior to disease onset, are associated with a reduction of at least 50 percent on the risk of developing lung cancer. An additional association for serum levels of folate was present, that when combined with B6 and methionine, was associated with a two-thirds lower risk of lung cancer,” the authors write.
The researchers add that if their observations regarding serum methionine, B6, or both are shown to be causal, identifying optimum levels for reducing future cancer risk would appear to be appropriate.
“Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer death in the world today and is likely to remain so for the near future. It is essential that for lung cancer prevention, any additional evidence about causality does not detract from the importance of reducing the numbers of individuals who smoke tobacco. With this in mind, it is important to recognize that a large proportion of lung cancer cases occur among former smokers, making up the majority in countries where tobacco campaigns have been particularly successful, and a non-trivial number of lung cancer cases occur also among never smokers, particularly among women in parts of Asia. Clarifying the role of B vitamins and related metabolites in lung cancer risk is likely therefore to be particularly relevant for former smokers and never smokers,” the authors conclude.
(JAMA. 2010;303:2377-2385. Available pre-embargo to the media at www.jamamedia.org)
Editor’s Note: Please see the article for additional information, including other authors, author contributions and affiliations, financial disclosures, funding and support, etc.
2008 study posted for filing
New research in an animal model suggests that a diet high in inorganic phosphates, which are found in a variety of processed foods including meats, cheeses, beverages, and bakery products, might speed growth of lung cancer tumors and may even contribute to the development of those tumors in individuals predisposed to the disease.
The study also suggests that dietary regulation of inorganic phosphates may play an important role in lung cancer treatment. The research, using a mouse model, was conducted by Myung-Haing Cho, D.V.M., Ph.D., and his colleagues at Seoul National University, appears in the first issue for January of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, published by the American Thoracic Society.
“Our study indicates that increased intake of inorganic phosphates strongly stimulates lung cancer development in mice, and suggests that dietary regulation of inorganic phosphates may be critical for lung cancer treatment as well as prevention,” said Dr. Cho.
Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer deaths in the world and is also the most frequently diagnosed solid tumor. Non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes over 75 percent of lung cancers and has an average overall 35-year survival rate of 14 percent. Earlier studies have indicated that approximately 90 percent of NSCLC cases were associated with activation of certain signaling pathways in lung tissue. This study revealed that high levels of inorganic phosphates can stimulate those same pathways.
“Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell proliferation in lung tissue, and disruption of signaling pathways in those tissues can confer a normal cell with malignant properties,” Dr. Cho explained. “Deregulation of only a small set of pathways can confer a normal cell with malignant properties, and these pathways are regulated in response to nutrient availability and, consequently, cell proliferation and growth.
“Phosphate is an essential nutrient to living organisms, and can activate some signals,” he added. “This study demonstrates that high intake of inorganic phosphates may strongly stimulate lung cancer development by altering those (signaling) pathways.”
In the study, lung cancer-model mice were studied for four weeks and were randomly assigned to receive a diet of either 0.5 or 1.0 percent phosphate, a range roughly equivalent to modern human diets. At the end of the four-week period, the lung tissue was analyzed to determine the effects of the inorganic phosphates on tumors.
“Our results clearly demonstrated that the diet higher in inorganic phosphates caused an increase in the size of the tumors and stimulated growth of the tumors,” Dr. Cho said.
Dr. Cho noted that while a moderate level of phosphate plays an essential role in living organisms, the rapidly increasing use of phosphates as a food additive has resulted in significantly higher levels in average daily diets. Phosphates are added to many food products to increase water retention and improve food texture.
“In the 1990s, phosphorous-containing food additives contributed an estimated 470 mg per day to the average daily adult diet,” he said. “However, phosphates are currently being added much more frequently to a large number of processed foods, including meats, cheeses, beverages, and bakery products. As a result, depending on individual food choices, phosphorous intake could be increased by as much as 1000 mg per day.”
“Although the 0.5 percent was defined as close to ‘normal,’ the average diet today is actually closer to the one percent diet and may actually exceed it,” Dr. Cho noted. “Therefore, the 0.5 percent intake level is actually a reduced phosphate diet by today’s scale.”
Dr. Cho said future studies will help refine what constitutes a “safe” level of dietary inorganic phosphate, with recommendations that will be easily achievable in the average population.
“The results of this study suggest that dietary regulation of inorganic phosphates has a place in lung cancer treatment, and our eventual goal is to collect sufficient information to accurately assess the risk of these phosphates,” he said.
John Heffner, M.D., past president of the ATS, stated that this line of investigation in animals addresses the complex interactions between host factors and the environment that underlie cancer in man. “We know that only some patients who smoke develop lung cancer but the reasons for this varying risk are unknown. This study now provides a rationale for funding case-control studies in humans to determine the potential role of dietary phosphates in promoting cancer.”
The upside to allergies: cancer prevention
A new article in the December issue of The Quarterly Review of Biology provides strong evidence that allergies are much more than just an annoying immune malfunction. They may protect against certain types of cancer.
The article, by researchers Paul Sherman, Erica Holland and Janet Shellman Sherman from Cornell University, suggests that allergy symptoms may protect against cancer by expelling foreign particles, some of which may be carcinogenic or carry absorbed carcinogens, from the organs most likely to come in with contact them. In addition, allergies may serve as early warning devices that let people know when there are substances in the air that should be avoided.
Medical researchers have long suspected an association between allergies and cancer, but extensive study on the subject has yielded mixed, and often contradictory, results. Many studies have found inverse associations between the two, meaning cancer patients tended to have fewer allergies in their medical history. Other studies have found positive associations, and still others found no association at all.
In an attempt to explain these contradictions, the Cornell team reexamined nearly 650 previous studies from the past five decades. They found that inverse allergy-cancer associations are far more common with cancers of organ systems that come in direct contact with matter from the external environment—the mouth and throat, colon and rectum, skin, cervix, pancreas and glial brain cells. Likewise, only allergies associated with tissues that are directly exposed to environmental assaults—eczema, hives, hay fever and animal and food allergies—had inverse relationships to cancers.
Such inverse associations were found to be far less likely for cancers of more isolated tissues like the breast, meningeal brain cells and prostate, as well as for myeloma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma and myelocytic leukemia.
The relationship between asthma and lung cancer, however, is a special case. A majority of the studies that the Cornell team examined found that asthma correlates to higher rates of lung cancer. “Essentially, asthma obstructs clearance of pulmonary mucous, blocking any potentially prophylactic benefit of allergic expulsion,” they explain. By contrast, allergies that affect the lungs other than asthma seem to retain the protective effect.
So if allergies are part of the body’s defense against foreign particle invaders, is it wise to turn them off with antihistamines and other suppressants? The Cornell team says that studies specifically designed to answer this question are needed.
“We hope that our analyses and arguments will encourage such cost/benefit analyses,” they write. “More importantly, we hope that our work will stimulate reconsideration…of the current prevailing view … that allergies are merely disorders of the immune system which, therefore, can be suppressed with impunity.”
Sherman, Paul W., Erica Holland, Janet Shellman Sherman, “Allergies: Their Role In Cancer Prevention,” The Quarterly Review of Biology December 2008
Since 1926, The Quarterly Review of Biology has been dedicated to providing insightful historical, philosophical, and technical treatments of important biological topics
- They can be similar in shape to asbestos fibres, which have been linked to lung cancers such as mesothelioma
PUBLISHED:10:30 EST, 24 August 2012| UPDATED:10:31 EST, 24 August 2012
Tiny fibres made by the nanotechnology industry could be as dangerous as asbestos if they are inhaled, say researchers.
Nanofibres are found in a wide range of everyday items, from sports equipment and waterproofs to nappies and vacuum cleaners.
But some are similar in shape to asbestos fibres, which have been known to cause lung cancers such as mesothelioma.
Research on mice, published in Toxicology Sciences, suggests the longer nanofibres are more dangerous.
Human and mouse lungs are different, but the researchers hope the study will help to design safer nanofibres.
Ken Donaldson, professor of respiratory toxicology at the University of Edinburgh, said: ‘Concern has been expressed that new kinds of nanofibres being made by nanotechnology industries might pose a risk because they have a similar shape to asbestos.’
Silver nanofibres of varying lengths were injected into the lungs of mice.
Those larger than five micrometres, or five-thousandths of a millimetre, tended to become lodged in the lungs and cause inflammation. The smaller ones were cleared from the lungs.
Prof Donaldson said: ‘We knew that long fibres, compared with shorter fibres, could cause tumours, but until now we did not know the cut-off length at which this happened.
‘Knowing the length beyond which the tiny fibres can cause disease is important in ensuring that safe fibres are made in the future as well as helping to understand the current risk from asbestos and other fibres.’
Professor Stephen Spiro, from the British Lung Foundation, said cases of mesothelioma had almost quadrupled in the past 30 years because of asbestos.
He added: ‘This research is particularly interesting as it gives us an indication of the size of fibre that might lead to mesothelioma if inhaled.
‘If confirmed by subsequent studies, this minimum fibre length can be cited in industry guidelines to help ensure people are not exposed to the sorts of fibres that may lead to such deadly diseases.