Masks may be worse than no mask if COVID-19 is aerosolized. UV light, Cadmium, and Vit. D all Corr,

This week we look at one of the worst cases of media bias to date in reference to the study: Effects of mask-wearing on the inhalability and deposition of airborne SARS-CoV-2 aerosols in human upper airway. Cadmiun and heightened mortality, UV light in relation to COVID and Vitamin D, again.
#sarscov2aerosol #micron #surgicalmask
Study Sources:
‘Alarmingly high’ vitamin D deficiency in the United Kingdom
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-12/uosa-hv121420.php#.X9jqniRdpbA.wordpress

COVID-19 does not damage auditory system, Tel Aviv University and Galilee Medical Center study finds
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-12/afot-cdn121520.php#.X9lCpb8uT8Q.wordpress

LED lights found to kill coronavirus: Global first in fight against COVID-19
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-12/afot-llf121420.php#.X9gQC1QniyA.wordpress

‘The mask matters: How masks affect airflow, protection effectiveness
Effects of mask-wearing on the inhalability and deposition of airborne SARS-CoV-2 aerosols in human upper airway
In this study, we found that the protective efficacy of a mask for the nasal airway decreases at lower inhalation flow rates. Particularly at 15 l/min, the nasal retention of 1 µm–3 µm ambient aerosols is even higher by wearing a 65% filtration mask than without a mask at all.’
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/5.0034580

SARS-CoV-2-like particles very sensitive to temperature
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-12/uou-spv121720.php#.X92jmCoxRLw.wordpress

New study links cadmium to more severe flu, pneumonia infections
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-12/uom-nsl121020.php#.X924gekaJHI.wordpress

COVID-19 spread increases when UV levels decrease
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-12/hjap-csi121620.php#.X92vSB3cwpQ.wordpress

COVID-19 as the Leading Cause of Death in the United States
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2774465?guestAccessKey=d0b5e5b7-a997-49c2-9000-c0f1842ce76c&utm_source=For_The_Media&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=ftm_links&utm_content=tfl&utm_term=121720

Reference to the DENMASK study:
https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/10.7326/M20-6817

API Sources:
Our wold in Data
COVID Tracking Project
HealthData.gov

Added:
Minimum Sizes of Respiratory Particles Carrying SARS-CoV-2 and the Possibility of
Aerosol Generation

Activists target China dog meat festival

Activists target China dog meat festival
The event is reported to have started several decades ago to mark the summer solstice.

July 2, 2013

BEIJING (AFP) – A festival dedicated to dog meat in southern China has been targeted by protesting animal lovers, who have won a minor concession from local officials, said an activist.

The annual festival, which took place two weeks ago in Guangxi province, saw dogs packed into cages before being killed, skinned and cooked – but was met with increasing opposition from activists, highlighting China’s growing animal rights movement.

Members of the activist group the Boai Small Animal Protection Centre protested in Yulin, the city which holds the festival, since early last month, calling on the local government to cancel it, group founder Du Yufeng said.

Photographs from past festivals showing dogs packed into cages and locals feasting on their meat from steaming pots have circulated on China’s popular social networking websites, leading thousands to condemn the festival as cruel.

“This year the government has said they feel under pressure from online activism…so they have a special team to monitor the festival,” Du said.

“I think the team will reduce the cruelty somewhat, but mostly on the surface,” she said, adding: “We have seen animals beaten just before being cooked…the more we inspect, the more cruelty we discover.”

Government officials previously said that they could not close the festival as it was organised by locals, and not the government, Du said.

The event is reported to have started several decades ago to mark the summer solstice, and it usually attracts 10,000 people, according to the South China Morning Post.

Trucks arriving at the city packed with live dogs had taken measures to avoid being intercepted by activists, Du said.

“We can’t stop the trucks because they come at three or four in the morning, so we don’t know about them,” she said.

But the activists had rescued dozens of the dogs and hoped to find new homes for them, she said.  Pictures posted on the group’s account on Sina Weibo – a Chinese social networking service similar to Twitter – showed around a dozen activists on a street in Yulin holding posters showing caged dogs and calling for the festival to be cancelled.

Dog meat is not widely eaten in China, but can be found at restaurants across the country, where it is sometimes considered a speciality.

 

http://www.soshiok.com/multimedia/photos/2142

Would you be willing to use a living animal as a respirator or dialysis machine?

biomedical ethics - Would you be willing to use a living animal as a respirator or dialysis machine?
Feb 23, 2013  8:00 AM

Designers Revital Cohen and Tuur Van Balen use both real and fictional biotechnology to explore the connection between the natural and the man-made, and invite questions about the impact of biotechnology. One of their projects, Life Support, imagines a world in which dogs and sheep take the role of life-saving medical devices. Their photos compel the viewer to ask: If the technology were available, would you want a greyhound respirator?

Cohen and Van Balen dreamed up Life Support in 2008 as an extreme extrapolation of the idea of assistance animals life guide dogs and therapeutic cats. They selected two animals—greyhounds and sheep—that are already bred for commercial use for their photo series. The “Respiratory Dog” is imagined as a retired racing hound that receives special training and a harness that uses the movements of the dog’s chest to pump a mechanical ventilator connected to a tracheotomy tube in its human companion’s neck.

The project description argues that it’s a win-win. Instead of being euthanized or placed in a shelter (The Humane Society notes that greyhounds are often retired at 3.5-4 years old but can live to be 13), the dogs receive the affection and security of a constant human companion, while the human gets a furry respirator.

Would you be willing to use a living animal as a respirator or dialysis machine?

The imaginary “Dialysis Lamb” deals with a more invasive process as it cleans a patient’s blood with its own kidneys. The idea is to create a transgenic lamb using the patient’s own DNA who then lives with the patient. During the day, the lamb roams around outside, drinking and grazing, and then at night it is hooked up to the patient. While both lamb and human sleep, the lamb cleans with human’s blood with its own kidneys.

Even if technologically feasible, both of these ideas come with plenty of logistical problems. But they do encourage us to consider: What line, if any, is there between a dog who fetches medication and other items for a disabled person and must be constantly vigilant for any difficulties her companion suffers, and a dog hooked up to a respirator harness? What is the line between using a sheep for its milk and wool and using its kidneys on a nightly basis?

What do you think? If these concepts were practical, would you have reservations about using them?

Life Support [Cohen Van Balen via Inhabitat]

http://io9.com/biomedical-ethics/

Mushroom-Derived Compound Lengthens Survival in Dogs With Cancer, Study Suggests: Yunzhi mushroom

ScienceDaily (Sep. 10, 2012) — Dogs with hemangiosarcoma that were treated with a compound derived from the Coriolus versicolor mushroom had the longest survival times ever reported for dogs with the disease. These promising findings offer hope that the compound may one day offer cancer patients — human and canine alike — a viable alternative or complementary treatment to traditional chemotherapies.

The study was conducted by two University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine faculty. Dorothy Cimino Brown is professor and chair of the Department of Clinical Studies and director of the Veterinary Clinical Investigation Center. Jennifer Reetz is an attending radiologist in the Department of Clinical Studies. They published their findings in an open-access article in the journal Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

The Coriolus versicolor mushroom, known commonly as the Yunzhi mushroom, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for more than 2,000 years. The compound in the mushroom that is believed to have immune-boosting properties is polysaccharopeptide, or PSP. In the last two decades, some studies have suggested that PSP also has a tumor-fighting effect.

“There have been a series of studies looking at groups of people with cancer,” Cimino Brown said. “The issue with those studies is that they weren’t necessarily measuring what most people would think is the most clinically important result, which is, do people taking PSP live longer?”

To address this critical question, Cimino Brown and Reetz pursued a study in dogs with naturally occurring hemangiosarcoma, an aggressive, invasive cancer that arises from the blood cells and typically affects the spleen. It commonly strikes golden retrievers and German shepherds.

Fifteen dogs that had been diagnosed with hemangiosarcoma participated in the trial. Divided into three groups of five, each group received a different dose — 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day — of I’m-Yunity, a formulation of PSP that has been tested for consistency and good manufacturing processes.

The owners were instructed to give their dog capsules of I’m-Yunity, compounded by Penn pharmacists, daily. Each month, the owners brought their dogs to Penn’s Ryan Veterinary Hospital for follow-up visits. There, the researchers took blood samples and conducted ultrasounds to determine the extent that tumors developed or grew and spread in the dogs’ bodies.

Based on the ultimate endpoints — how quickly the tumors progressed and how long the dogs actually lived — the results of the researchers’ trial suggest that the I’m-Yunity was effectively fighting the tumors.

“We were shocked,” Cimino Brown said. “Prior to this, the longest reported median survival time of dogs with hemangiosarcoma of the spleen that underwent no further treatment was 86 days. We had dogs that lived beyond a year with nothing other than this mushroom as treatment.”

There were not statistically significant differences in survival between the three dosage groups, though the median survival time was highest in the 100 mg group, at 199 days, eclipsing the previously reported median survival time.

The results were so surprising, in fact, that the researchers asked Penn Vet pathologists to recheck the dogs’ tissue biopsies to make sure that the dogs really had the disease.

“They reread the samples and said, yes, it’s really hemangiosarcoma,” Cimino Brown said.

Chemotherapy is available for treating hemangiosarcoma, but many owners opt not to pursue that treatment once their dog is diagnosed.

“It doesn’t hugely increase survival, it’s expensive and it means a lot of back and forth to the vet for the dog,” Cimino Brown said. “So you have to figure in quality of life.”

While I’m-Yunity is not inexpensive, if proven effective, it would offer owners a way of extending their pet’s life without regular trips to the vet. As an added benefit, Cimino Brown and Reetz have found no evidence of adverse effects from the PSP treatment.

The researchers are now getting ready to pursue further trials of I’m-Yunity in dogs with hemangiosarcoma to confirm and refine their results. One trial will compare I’m-Yunity to a placebo for those owners who opt not to pursue chemotherapy in their pet and another will compare the compound to standard-of-care chemotherapy.

Depending on those results, veterinarians could eventually prescribe the compound for treating hemangiosarcoma, and perhaps other cancers, in dogs. The company that manufacturers I’m-Yunity may also pursue large-scale clinical trials in humans.

“Although hemangiosarcoma is a very sad and devastating disease,” Cimino Brown said, “in the long term, if we prove that this works, this treatment can be a really nice alternative for owners to have increased quality time with their pet at the end of its life.”

The study was funded by a grant from Chinese Medicine Holdings LTD