Is There a Link Between Coffee Drinking and Mortality?

Contact: Vicki Cohn, (914) 740-2156, vcohn@liebertpub.com

New Rochelle, NY, February 19, 2013–A large study of nearly half a million older adults followed for about 12 years revealed a clear trend: as coffee drinking increased, the risk of death decreased. Study author Neal Freedman, PhD, MPH, National Cancer Institute, discusses the significance of these findings and the potential links between coffee drinking, caffeine consumption, and various specific causes of disease in an interview in Journal of Caffeine Research, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available on the Journal of Caffeine Research website.

Epidemiology of Caffeine Consumption and Association of Coffee Drinking with Total and Cause-specific Mortality” presents an in-depth interview exploring the many factors that could contribute to the association between coffee, disease, and mortality.

Dr. Freedman examines the relationship between coffee drinking and behaviors such as smoking and alcohol abuse, the physiological effects of caffeine on blood pressure and cardiac function, and the importance of differentiating between the effects of coffee and caffeine.

“Given the near-universal daily consumption of caffeine, Dr. Freedman‘s research underscores the urgent need for randomized controlled trials to identify which components of coffee and other caffeine beverages benefit or harm consumers, under what circumstances, and in relation to which health outcomes,” says Jack E. James, PhD, Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Caffeine Research.

 

About the Journal Journal of Caffeine Research: The International Multidisciplinary Journal of Caffeine Science is a quarterly journal published in print and online that covers the effects of caffeine on a wide range of diseases and conditions, including mood disorders, neurological disorders, cognitive performance, cardiovascular disease, and sports performance. The Journal explores all aspects of caffeine science including the biochemistry of caffeine; its actions on the human body; benefits, dangers, and contraindications; and caffeine addiction and withdrawal, across all stages of the human life span from prenatal exposure to end-of-life. Complete tables of content and a sample issue may be viewed on the Journal of Caffeine Research website.

About the Publisher Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers is a privately held, fully integrated media company known for establishing authoritative peer-reviewed journals in many promising areas of science and biomedical research, including Breastfeeding Medicine, Journal of Medicinal Food, and Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. Its biotechnology trade magazine, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News (GEN), was the first in its field and is today the industry’s most widely read publication worldwide. A complete list of the firm’s 70 journals, books, and newsmagazines is available on the Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers website.

Sugary soft drinks may raise risk of depression – with diet versions causing the most harm

  • Four cans of pop a day raised depression  risk 30%
  • But drinking four cups of coffee decreased  risk by 10%

By  Fiona Macrae

PUBLISHED: 16:12 EST, 8  January 2013 |  UPDATED: 20:46 EST, 8 January 2013

Cutting out sweetened diet drinks could lower risk of depression, say researchers
Cutting out sweetened diet drinks could lower risk of  depression, say researchers

If you are feeling low, it may be best to lay  off the fizzy drinks and have a cup of coffee instead.

A study has linked soft drinks to depression  – with diet versions particularly problematic.

Coffee, however, appeared to have the  opposite effect.

The finding comes from US researchers who  studied the drink consumption of 265,000 men and women aged 50 to 71.

Ten years into the study, the volunteers were  asked if they had been diagnosed with depression in the previous five  years.

Those who drank more than four cans of soft  drinks a day were 30 per cent more likely to have had depression than those who  drank none, the American Academy of Neurology conference heard. The risk seemed  greater among those who preferred diet drinks.

The researchers said this may be due to the  presence of the artificial sweetener aspartame, which yesterday was  provisionally given a clean bill of health by the European Food Safety  Authority, following a review.

Unsweetened coffee could lower the risk of depression
Unsweetened coffee could lower the risk of  depression

Making the link does not prove soft  drinks  cause depression.

But researcher Honglei Chen said: ‘While our  findings are preliminary and the underlying biological mechanisms are  not  known, they are consistent with a small but growing body of evidence suggesting  that artificially sweetened beverages may be associated with poor health.’

The study found that those who had  four cups  of coffee a day were 10 per cent less likely to become  depressed than  non-coffee drinkers.

Dr Chen said this may be due to the  caffeine  in coffee stimulating the brain.

The British Soft Drinks Association  urged  caution over the findings and pointed out that the scientists  themselves said  that more research is needed.

Previous studies have linked soft drinks to  heart attacks, diabetes, weight gain, brittle bones and pancreatic  cancer.

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2259047/Sugary-soft-drinks-raise-risk-depression–diet-versions-cause-harm.html#ixzz2HScIKApu Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Caffeine improves recognition of positive words

Contact: Jyoti Madhusoodanan
jmadhusoodanan@plos.org
415-568-4545 x187
Public Library of Science

2-3 cups of coffee improve brain processing of positive, but not negative or neutral words

Caffeine perks up most coffee-lovers, but a new study shows a small dose of caffeine also increases their speed and accuracy for recognizing words with positive connotation. The research published November 7 in the open access journal PLOS ONE by Lars Kuchinke and colleagues from Ruhr University, Germany, shows that caffeine enhances the neural processing of positive words, but not those with neutral or negative associations.

Previous research showed that caffeine increases activity in the central nervous system, and normal doses of caffeine improve performance on simple cognitive tasks and behavioral responses. It is also known that certain memories are enhanced when strong positive or negative emotions are associated with objects, but the link between caffeine consumption and these emotional biases was unknown.

This study demonstrates, for the first time, that consuming 200 mg of caffeine, equivalent to 2-3 cups of coffee, 30 minutes before a task can improve the implicit recognition of positive words, but has no effect on the processing of emotionally neutral or negative words. The authors suggest that this effect is driven by caffeine’s strong dopaminergic effects in the language-dominant regions of the brain.

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Citation: Kuchinke L, Lux V (2012) Caffeine Improves Left Hemisphere Processing of Positive Words. PLoS ONE 7(11): e48487. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048487

Financial Disclosure: The authors have no support or funding to report.

Competing Interest Statement: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Caffeine from Coffee consumption associated with less severe liver fibrosis

Contact: Dawn Peters medicalnews@wiley.com 781-388-8408 Wiley-Blackwell

Study finds caffeine in sources other than coffee does not have similar effect

Researchers from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) determined that patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) who consumed more than 308 mg of caffeine daily had milder liver fibrosis. The daily amount of caffeine intake found to be beneficial is equivalent to 2.25 cups of regular coffee. Other sources of caffeine beyond coffee did not have the same therapeutic effect. Details of this study are available in the January 2010 issue of Hepatology, a journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Liver fibrosis or scaring of the liver is the second stage of liver disease and characterized by a degradation of liver function due to accumulated connective tissue. Past studies have looked at modifiable behaviors, such as coffee consumption, that mitigate the progression of liver disease. A number of studies have looked at the benefits of higher coffee intake with results that include: lower prevalence of chronic liver disease, reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer), and lower risk of death from cirrhosis complications. “From data collected to date it remains unclear whether coffee itself, or caffeine provides the beneficial effect,” said Apurva Modi, M.D. and lead author of the current study that focuses on caffeine intake and its impact on liver fibrosis.

From January 2006 to November 2008 all patients evaluated in the Liver Disease Branch of the National Institutes of Health were asked to complete a questionnaire to determine caffeine consumption. Questions were asked pertaining to all sources of caffeine including regular and diet soft drinks; regular and decaffeinated coffee; black, green, Chinese and herbal teas; cocoa and hot chocolate; caffeine-fortified drinks; chocolate candy; caffeine pills; and medications with caffeine. Participants were asked about their frequency of caffeine consumption, which was quantified as never; 1-3 times per month; 1, 2-4, or 5-6 times per week; 1, 2-3, 4-5, and 6 or more times per day.

The analysis included 177 participants who were undergoing liver biopsy with a mean age of 51 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 27.5. Of those in the cohort 56% were male, 59% Caucasian, 19% Black, 19% Asian, 3% Hispanic, and 68% had chronic HCV. Daily consumption of caffeine from food and beverages raged from none to 1028 mg/day with an average of 195 mg/day, which is equivalent to 1.4 cups of coffee daily. Most caffeine consumed came from regular coffee (71%) followed by caffeinated soda (13%), and black tea (4%). Repeated administration of the questionnaire within a 6-month period displayed consistent responses suggesting caffeine intake does not significantly change over time.

Patients with an Ishak fibrosis score of less than 3 had a mean caffeine intake of 212 mg/day compared with 154 mg/day for those with more advanced fibrosis. The Ishak fibrosis score is the preferred system that measures degree of liver scarring with 0 representing no fibrosis through 6 indicating cirrhosis. For each 67 mg increase in caffeine consumption (about one half cup of coffee) there was a 14% decrease in the odds of advanced fibrosis for patients with HCV. “Our data suggest that a beneficial effect requires caffeine consumption above a threshold of approximately 2 coffee-cup equivalents daily,” noted Dr. Modi. The protective effects of consuming more than 308 mg of caffeine daily persisted after controlling for age, sex, race, liver disease, BMI and alcohol intake for all study participants.

Researchers further evaluated caffeine and coffee separately to determine the individual effect of each on fibrosis. Results showed that consumption of caffeinated soda, green or black tea was not associated with reduced liver fibrosis. However, a significant protective effect could have been missed due to small numbers, as 71% of total caffeine consumed came from coffee. Caffeinated coffee had the most pronounced effect on reduced liver fibrosis. The authors suggest that further research is needed to determine if the protective benefits of coffee/caffeine intake plateau at amounts beyond the daily consumption threshold.

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Article: “Increased caffeine consumption is associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis.” Apurva A Modi, Jordan J Feld, Yoon Park, David E Kleiner, James E. Everhart, T. Jake Liang, and Jay H. Hoofnagle. Hepatology; Published Online: September 9, 2009 (DOI:10.1002/hep.23279); Print Issue Date: January 2010 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122593077/abstract

Hepatology is the premier publication in the field of liver disease, publishing original, peer-reviewed articles concerning all aspects of liver structure, function and disease. Each month, the distinguished Editorial Board monitors and selects only the best articles on subjects such as immunology, chronic hepatitis, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, genetic and metabolic liver diseases and their complications, liver cancer, and drug metabolism. Hepatology is published on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD). For more information, please visit http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/106570044/home.

Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons, with strengths in every major academic and professional field and partnerships with many of the world’s leading societies. Wiley-Blackwell publishes nearly 1,500 peer-reviewed journals and 1,500+ new books annually in print and online, as well as databases, major reference works and laboratory protocols. For more information, please visit www.wileyblackwell.com or www.interscience.wiley.com.

Coffee’s aroma kick-starts genes in the brain

Re-Post for Filing 2008

Contact: Michael Woods
m_woods@acs.org
202-872-4400
American Chemical Society

IMAGE:Scientists report that the simple inhalation of coffee by rats has changed their gene expressions in ways that help reduce sleep deprivation-induced stress.Click here for more information.


Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Drink coffee to send a wake-up call to the brain? Or just smell its rich, warm aroma? An international group of scientists is reporting some of the first evidence that simply inhaling coffee aroma alters the activity of genes in the brain. In experiments with laboratory rats, they found that coffee aroma orchestrates the expression of more than a dozen genes and some changes in protein expressions, in ways that help reduce the stress of sleep deprivation. Their study is scheduled for the June 25 issue of ACS’ bi-weekly Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

Han-Seok Seo and colleagues point out that hundreds of studies have been done on the ingredients in coffee, including substances linked to beneficial health effects. “There are few studies that deal with the beneficial effects of coffee aroma,” they note. “This study is the first effort to elucidate the effects of coffee bean aroma on the sleep deprivation-induced stress in the rat brain.”

In an effort to begin filling that gap, they allowed lab rats to inhale coffee aroma, including some rats stressed by sleep deprivation. The study then compared gene and protein expressions in the rats’ brains. Rats that sniffed coffee showed different levels of activity in 17 genes. Thirteen of the genes showed differential mRNA expression between the stress group and the stress with coffee group, including proteins with healthful antioxidant activity known to protect nerve cells from stress-related damage. — MTS

ARTICLE #1 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
“Effects of Coffee Bean Aroma on the Rat Brain Stressed by Sleep Deprivation: A Selected Transcript- and 2D Gel-Based Proteome Analysis”

DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ARTICLE
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf8001137

CONTACT:
Han-Seok Seo, Ph.D.
Seoul National University
Seoul, South Korea
Email: abc6978@empal.com