One in 2 people in the UK will get cancer

Public Release: 3-Feb-2015

Cancer Research UK

One in two people will develop cancer at some point in their lives, according to the most accurate forecast to date from Cancer Research UK, and published in the British Journal of Cancer today (Wednesday).

The new figure highlights the urgent need to bolster public health and NHS cancer services so they can cope with a growing and ageing population and the looming demands for better diagnostics, treatments, and earlier diagnosis. Prevention must also play an important role in the concerted effort required to reduce the impact of the disease in coming decades.

Thanks to research, the UK’s cancer survival has doubled over the last 40 years and around half of patients now survive the disease for more than 10 years. But, as more people benefit from improved healthcare and longer life expectancy, the number of cancer cases is expected to rise. This new research estimating lifetime risk finds that, from now on*, 1 in 2 people will be diagnosed with the disease.

This new estimate replaces the previous figure, calculated using a different method, which predicted that more than 1 in 3 people would develop cancer at some point in their lives.

Age is the biggest risk factor for most cancers, and the increase in lifetime risk is primarily because more people are surviving into old age, when cancer is more common.

Study author Professor Peter Sasieni, based at Queen Mary University of London, said: “Cancer is primarily a disease of old age, with more than 60 per cent of all cases diagnosed in people aged over 65. If people live long enough then most will get cancer at some point. But there’s a lot we can do to make it less likely – like giving up smoking, being more active, drinking less alcohol and maintaining a healthy weight. Continue reading “One in 2 people in the UK will get cancer”

Statins risk for women: Taking cholesterol-lowering drug for more than ten years ‘doubles chances of the most common breast cancer’

  • Previous studies had shown  cholesterol-lowering drugs can reduce the risk of certain cancers
  • Research had only looked at women on drugs  for less than five years
  • Experts say drugs could affect hormone  regulation which could lead to breast cancer

By  Pat Hagan

PUBLISHED: 16:17 EST, 19  July 2013 |  UPDATED: 18:05 EST, 19 July 2013

Statins are a major weapon against heart disease. The new findings raise concerns over the long-term safety of the drugs 

Statins are a major weapon against heart disease. The  new findings raise concerns over the long-term safety of the drugs

Women who take statins for more than a decade  face double the risk of contracting the most common type of breast  cancer.

Alarming findings raise new concerns over the  long-term safety of a widely prescribed medicine in the UK.

Previous studies have suggested the  cholesterol-lowering drugs, used by an estimated eight million men and women,  can reduce the risk of certain cancers – including the breast form of the  disease.

However, most research looked at patients who  had only been on them for five years or less.

The latest findings identified invasive  ductal carcinoma (IDC) which starts in the ducts of the breast before spreading  inwards. It accounts for around seven out of ten breast cancer cases.

The experts at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer  Research Centre in Seattle, US, also found the chances of getting invasive  lobular carcinoma, which accounts for ten to 15 per cent of breast cancers, went  up almost 2.5 times in some women on statins long-term.

Around 48,000 women in Britain are diagnosed  with breast cancer each year, equal to around 130 a day. A woman has a one in  nine chance of developing the disease at some point in her life.

The reasons why the anti-cholesterol pills  might stimulate cancer growth are unclear.

The researchers said one explanation may be  that statins affect hormone regulation in the body, especially as the study  found women on the drugs were significantly more likely to suffer cancers driven  by the hormone oestrogen.

 

They said it’s possible that while short-term  use does appear to have a protective effect against breast cancer, in the  long-run statins may damage certain chemical pathways that lead to growth of  tumours.

The report found: ‘As more women are taking  them and for longer durations it is possible we will observe effects that prior  studies could not detect.’

Last night, leading UK cancer bodies called  for urgent research to clarify the risks to women.

But they urged patients on statins not to  stop taking them without consulting their GP.

The researchers said statins could affect hormone regulation in the body, especially as the study found women on the drugs were significantly more likely to suffer cancers driven by the hormone oestrogen 

The researchers said statins could affect hormone  regulation in the body, especially as the study found women on the drugs were  significantly more likely to suffer cancers driven by the hormone  oestrogen

Sally Greenbrook, from the charity  Breakthrough Breast Cancer, said: ‘Any study suggesting a potential link between  statins and breast cancer risk should not be taken lightly. But these drugs are  extremely effective at reducing the risk of cardiovascular  disease.’

Jessica Harris, of Cancer Research UK, said:  ‘There’s been a huge amount of research into the link between statins and  cancer.

‘But so far there’s no conclusive answer,  with some studies showing a reduced risk, some no link, and others showing a  raised risk.’

Statins have also emerged as a major weapon  against heart disease in the last 20 years.

The latest research, published in the journal  Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, examined how long-term statin use  affected breast cancer risk in women aged between 55 and 74.

The researchers studied just under 2,000  women diagnosed with either IDC or ILC between 2000 and 2008 and a separate  group of 902 women of a similar age profile but who were free of  cancer.

Around 370 men a year in the UK are diagnosed  with breast cancer – but the latest research did not investigate the cancer risk  of men taking statins.

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2370825/Statins-risk-women-Taking-cholesterol-lowering-drug-years-doubles-chances-common-breast-cancer.html#ixzz2ZY2BmQQY Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

Study reveals 2/3 of prostate cancer patients do not need treatment

2009 study posted for filing

Contact: Samantha Martin
samantha.martin@liv.ac.uk
44-151-794-2248
University of Liverpool

In the largest study of its kind, the international team of pathologists studied an initial 4,000 prostate cancer patients over a period of 15 years to further understanding into the natural progression of the disease and how it should be managed. The research, published in the British Journal of Cancer, could be used to develop a blood test to distinguish between aggressive and non-aggressive forms of prostate cancer.

Globally, prostate cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 13% of male deaths in the UK. Studies have shown that men with non-aggressive prostate cancer can live with the disease untreated for many years, but aggressive cancer requires immediate treatment.

Pathologists found that the presence of a protein, called Hsp-27, in cancer cells was an indicator that the disease will progress and require treatment. The study showed, however, that in more than 60% of cases the protein was not expressed and the cancer could be managed by careful monitoring, rather than with active invention methods, such as drug treatment or surgery.

The protein normally has a positive function in the body, helping healthy cells survive when they are placed under ‘stressful’ conditions, such as disease or injury. If the protein is expressed in cancer, however, it can prevent the diseased cells from dying, allowing the cancer to progress. The team, supported by Cancer Research UK (CRUK) and in collaboration with scientists in London and New York, found that the protein can be used to predict how the disease will behave and could help doctors advise patients on how the disease could affect their daily lives.

Professor Chris Foster, Head of the University’s Division of Pathology, explains: “Cancer of any kind is a very distressing disease and has the ability to impact on every aspect of a person’s life. Chemotherapy and surgery can also have a significant effect on health and wellbeing and that is why it is important that we first understand the biological nature of the disease and how it will behave in each individual patient, before determining if and when a person needs a particular type of treatment.

“By studying the disease in a large number of men throughout the UK and over a long period of time, we have been able to get a more complete picture of how to manage the disease successfully, whilst limiting the negative impact it can have on a patient’s life. The study also demonstrates the role of modern of Pathology, not only in establishing diagnoses but in determining if the subsequent management of individual patients is biologically appropriate for their particular condition.

“The protein – or biomarker – we have identified provides us with a signal that the disease will continue to progress. We know that at the point this marker is expressed, medics need to administer treatment to kill the cancer cells. We have shown that in the majority of cases, however, this marker is not expressed and therefore patients do not necessarily need to go through treatment to lead a normal life.”

 

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Notes to editors:

1. Patients looking for more information about the new test should discuss the procedure with a Consultant Urologist. Currently, the test can be performed after the patient has undergone a biopsy. Scientists are now working to allow the test to be conducted by blood test.

2. Pathology research at Liverpool is internationally renowned. The division provides services in diagnostic pathology to the Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals Trust as well as offering services in specialised fields of pathology to several other hospitals in the North of England.

3. Cancer Research UK is the world’s leading independent organisation dedicated to cancer research. The organisation supports research into all aspects of cancer through the work of more than 4,500 scientists, doctors and nurses.

4. The BJC is owned by Cancer Research UK. Its mission is to encourage communication of the very best cancer research from laboratories and clinics in all countries. Broad coverage, its editorial independence and consistent high standards have made BJC one of the world’s premier general cancer journals. www.bjcancer.com.

5. The University of Liverpool is a member of the Russell Group of leading research-intensive institutions in the UK. It attracts collaborative and contract research commissions from a wide range of national and international organisations valued at more than £93 million annually.

Breast cancer screening saves lives, says study??? that screening only narrowly decreased risks that a 50-year-old woman would die from breast cancer within 10 years — from 0.53 percent to 0.46 percent.

Engineering Evil Note: There seems to be conflicting studies being utilized to favor screening. I found this report stating that they used no current data for the meta analysis. The data they claimed to have used here was over 20 years old. I am withholding my humble opinion to see if there were current studies, and if they used the superior MRI  overt he  antiquated mammograms. There seems to be a few different press releases quoting different studies, in addition now to a few broken links to those reports.

i.e. http://todayhealth.today.com/_news/2012/10/29/14787480-breast-cancer-checks-save-lives-despite-over-diagnosis-reportsays?lite

Breast cancer screening saves lives, says study

PARIS (AFP)  Benefits of preemptive breast cancer screening outweigh the risks, a study said Tuesday, insisting the practice saves thousands of lives.The new research adds to the debate about the dangers of overdiagnosis, which sees some women undergo invasive treatment for cancers that would never have made them ill or even been diagnosed were it not for the scans.”Breast screening extends lives,” concluded a panel of researchers in The Lancet medical journal.

The team had analysed data from other trials conducted over many years in Britain, where women aged 50 to 70 are invited for a screening mammogram every three years.

The data, it said, pointed to a 20 percent reduction in mortality — or one death prevented for every 180 women screened.

This meant that the UK screening programmes “probably prevent about 1,300 breast cancer deaths every year,” said the report.

But there is a cost.

Nearly 20 percent of breast cancer diagnosed by screening would never have caused any problems, said the study.

The panel, set up to advise British policymakers, estimated that among every 10,000 women invited to screening from the age of 50 in the Britain, 681 cancers would be discovered, of which 129 would be overdiagnoses, and 43 deaths prevented.

The report showed that “the UK breast-screening programme extends lives and that, overall, the benefits outweigh the harms,” The Lancet wrote in an editorial.

“Women need to have full and complete access to this latest evidence in order to make an informed choice about breast cancer screening.”

The team conceded there were limitations to its work, including that all the data scrutinised was more than 20 years old.

Cancer experts have been at loggerheads for years about whether the benefits of screening outweigh the harm of overdiagnosis.

All cancer, once picked up in the screening process, is treated, often with surgery as well as radio- and chemotherapy, as it is impossible to tell which growths would have remained undetected for the remainder of a woman’s life.

In August, medical experts Steven Woloshin and Lisa Schwartz wrote in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) that screening only narrowly decreased risks that a 50-year-old woman would die from breast cancer within 10 years — from 0.53 percent to 0.46 percent.

Up to half of women screened annually over 10 years experienced at least one false alarm that required a biopsy, they said.

And in 2010, a report in the New England Journal of Medicine said mammograms have only a “modest” impact on reducing breast cancer deaths.

The latest panel had been created by the national cancer director for England, Mike Richards and Cancer Research UK chief executive officer Harpal Kumar.

Its work, said The Lancet, “should begin to lay the benefits versus harm controversy to rest”.

http://www.afp.com/en/news/topstories/breast-cancer-screening-saves-lives-says-study

‘Cannabis alters human DNA’ — new study

2009 study posted for filing

Contact: Rajinder Singh
44-116-223-1827
University of Leicester

Research at University of Leicester highlights cancer risk from cannabis smoke

A new study published by University of Leicester researchers has found “convincing evidence” that cannabis smoke damages DNA in ways that could potentially increase the risk of cancer development in humans.

Using a newly developed highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, the University of Leicester scientists found clear indication that cannabis smoke damages DNA, under laboratory conditions.

They have now published the findings in the journal Chemical Research in Toxicology1.

The research was carried out by Rajinder Singh, Jatinderpal Sandhu, Balvinder Kaur, Tina Juren, William P. Steward, Dan Segerback and Peter B. Farmer from the Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine and Karolinska Institute, Sweden.

Raj Singh said: “Parts of the plant Cannabis sativa, also known as marijuana, ganja, and various street names, are commonly smoked as a recreational drug, although its use for such purposes is illegal in many countries.

“There have been many studies on the toxicity of tobacco smoke. It is known that tobacco smoke contains 4000 chemicals of which 60 are classed as carcinogens. Cannabis in contrast has not been so well studied. It is less combustible than tobacco and is often mixed with tobacco in use. Cannabis smoke contains 400 compounds including 60 cannabinoids. However, because of its lower combustibility it contains 50% more carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including naphthalene, benzanthracene, and benzopyrene, than tobacco smoke.”

Writing in the journal Chemical Research in Toxicology, the scientists describe the development of a mass spectrometry method that provides a clear indication that cannabis smoke damages DNA, under laboratory conditions.

The authors added: “It is well known that toxic substances in tobacco smoke can damage DNA and increase the risk of lung and other cancers. Scientists were unsure though whether cannabis smoke would have the same effect. Our research has focused on the toxicity of acetaldehyde, which is present in both tobacco and cannabis.”

The researchers add that the ability of cannabis smoke to damage DNA has significant human health implications especially as users tend to inhale more deeply than cigarette smokers, which increases respiratory burden. “The smoking of 3-4 cannabis cigarettes a day is associated with the same degree of damage to bronchial mucus membranes as 20 or more tobacco cigarettes a day,” the team adds.

“These results provide evidence for the DNA damaging potential of cannabis smoke,” the researchers conclude, “implying that the consumption of cannabis cigarettes may be detrimental to human health with the possibility to initiate cancer development.”

 

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The study was funded by the European Union Network of Excellence ECNIS, the Medical Research Council and Cancer Research UK.

1. Rajinder Singh, Jatinderpal Sandhu, Balvinder Kaur, Tina Juren, William P. Steward, Dan Segerback and Peter B. Farmer (2009) Evaluation of the DNA Damaging Potential of Cannabis Cigarette Smoke by the Determination of Acetaldehyde Derived N2-Ethyl-2′-deoxyguanosine Adducts. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 22, 1181-1188.

Note to newsdesk: For more information/interviews, please contact: 0116 223 1827 or 0116 223 1823

Powerful magnets that cause cancer cells to ‘self-destruct’ could offer targeted treatment for tumours

By Anna Hodgekiss

PUBLISHED:06:40 EST, 8  October 2012| UPDATED:10:02 EST, 8 October 2012

Magnets  that cause tumours to ‘self-destruct’ could be a revolutionary new weapon in the  fight against cancer.

Scientists  in South Korea have developed the method, which uses a magnetic field to trigger  the cells to effectively kill themselves.

The  researchers have demonstrated that the process works in bowel cancer cells and  living laboratory fish.

They  now plan to test the technique on a range of cancers to see if it can destroy  other tumours.

 Fighting cancer: The breakthrough treatment triggers the diseased cells to effectively commit suicide, blasting away the cancer from within

Fighting cancer: The breakthrough treatment triggers the  diseased cells to effectively commit suicide, blasting away the cancer from  within.

 

Programmed  cell death, or apoptosis, as it is known, is one of the body’s ways of getting  rid of old, faulty or infected cells.

In  response to certain signals, the doomed cell shrinks and breaks into fragments.  These are then engulfed and consumed by amoeba-like immune cells.

But  with cancer, this cell-death process often fails, so cells are allowed to keep  dividing uncontrollably.

The  new magnetic therapy involves creating tiny iron nanoparticles attached to  antibodies – proteins produced by the body’s immune system when it detects  harmful substances.

These iron nanoparticles then bind to the molecules on tumour cells.

When  the magnetic field is applied, the molecules cluster together, automatically  triggering the ‘death signal’.

The  process raises the hope of new targeted treatments that could kill tumour cells  resistant to the usual process of cell death.

Reducing the risk: Recent research found an estimated 22,000 cancer cases could be avoided by maintaining a healthy weight

Reducing the risk: Recent research found an estimated  22,000 cancer cases could be avoided by maintaining a healthy weight.

 

In  the South Korean research, bowel cancer cells were exposed to the nanoparticles  and placed between two magnets.

More  than half the exposed cells were destroyed by magnetic activation, whereas no  untreated cells were affected.

The  research is published in the journal Nature Materials.

Henry  Scowcroft, at Cancer Research UK’s science information manager, said: ‘This is  fascinating but extremely preliminary research.

‘These  Korean researchers have developed an antibody-based molecule that, when  activated by a magnetic field, can cause cancer cells to die in highly  artificial laboratory conditions and animal models.

‘There’s  a long way to go before it’s ready to test in humans, but research like this  shows just how ingenious scientists around the world are becoming in the quest  to beat cancer.’

However,  simply maintaining a healthy body weight could go a long way to preventing  cancer occurring in the first place.

A  report published last week by the World Cancer Research fund warned that more  than 22,000 cases could be prevented every year.

Excess  body weight raises the risk of a host of diseases including cancers of the  pancreas, breast, bowel, oesophagus, kidney, womb and gall  bladder.

However  the rates of people dying from cancer are predicted to fall by 17 per cent in  the UK by 2030, according to statistics released last month by Cancer Research  UK.

For  all cancers, 170 people in every 100,000 died from the disease in 2010. By 2030  it is predicted this will fall to 142 in every 100,000.

This  is largely due to earlier diagnosis and improved treatments, but also reflects a  reduction in smoking-related cancers leading to fewer deaths.

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2214548/Cancer-cure-The-magnets-cause-cancer-cells-self-destruct.html#ixzz28m9AREQi Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook